PAPYRUS 18 (P18) POxy1079 Contains the Beginning of the Book of Revelation [Dating to 250 A.D.]

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PAPYRUS 18 (P18)

Revelation 1:4–7
Name Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1079
Text Book of Revelation 1 †
Date 250 A.D.
Script Greek
Found Egypt
Now at British Library
Cite B. P. Grenfell & A. S. HuntOxyrhynchus Papyri VIII, (London 1911), pp. 13 14
Type Alexandrian text-type
Category I
The P52 PROJECT THE NEW TESTAMENT DOCUMENTS 4th ed. MISREPRESENTING JESUS

NOTE: There is a lot going on here in this article, so keep scrolling.

The Greek text of this manuscript is representative of the Alexandrian text type. Aland placed it in Category I.

  • Revelation 1:5
λυσαντι ημας εκ [“having loosed us from”] — P18אcAC, 2020, 2081, 2814
λουσαντι ημας απο [“having loosed us from”] — P (Codex Porphyrianus), 046 (Codex Vaticanus 2066), 94 (Minuscule 94), 1006, 1859, 2042, 2065, 2073, 2138, 2432

It is currently housed at the British Library (Inv. 2053v) in London.

Papyrus 18 (in the Gregory–Aland numbering), designated by P18, is an early copy of the New Testament in Greek. It is similar to P9 and P24, and has the highest agreement with C followed by א and A. It is a papyrus manuscript containing the beginning of the Book of Revelation. It contains only Revelation 1:4–7. It is written against the fibers of the papyrus. On the other side of the papyrus is the ending of the book of Exodus. It is unclear whether the papyrus was a scroll of Exodus later reused for a copy of Revelation or a leaf from a codex with miscellaneous contents. The two sides of the papyrus were copied in different hands, but the original editor of the papyrus did not think there was a great interval of time between the copying of the two sides. He assigned the Exodus to the third century and the Revelation to the third or early fourth century.

APOSTOLIC FATHERS Lightfoot APOSTOLIC FATHERS

Philip W. Comfort writes,

The text of Revelation was written on the verso of a scroll of Exodus (P. Oxy. 1075), which was dated by Grenfell and Hunt to the third century. Other scholars place P. Oxy. 1075 at the end of the second century. This date for the recto and the handwriting style of P18 (on the verso) suggest a date of middle to late third century. The writing of Revelation travels in the direction opposite that of Exodus, the end of one work (Exodus 40) coinciding with the beginning of the other (Revelation 1). A different scribe (untrained in writing books) used the Exodus scroll at some later date to copy the Book of Revelation. – Philip Wesley Comfort and David P. Barrett, THE TEXT OF THE EARLIEST NEW TESTAMENT MANUSCRIPTS: Papyri 1-72, Vol. 1 (English and Greek Edition) (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Academic, 2019), 119.

REVELATION 1:4-7 Greek-English New Testament Interlinear (GENTI)

ἸωάνηςJohn ταῖςto the ἑπτὰseven ἐκκλησίαιςassemblies/congregations ταῖςthe ἐνin τῇthe ᾿Ασίᾳ·Asia;

χάριςfavor ὑμῖνto you καὶand εἰρήνηpeace ἀπὸfrom the (one) ὢνbeing καὶand the (one) ἦνwas καὶand the (one) ἐρχόμενος,coming, καὶand ἀπὸfrom τῶνthe ἑπτὰseven πνευμάτωνspirits which ἐνώπιονin sight τοῦof the θρόνουthrone αὐτοῦ,of him, 5 καὶand ἀπὸfrom ἸησοῦJesus Χριστοῦ,Christ, [he] the μάρτυςWitness the πιστός,Faithful, the πρωτότοκοςfirstborn τῶνof the νεκρῶνdead (ones) καὶand The ἄρχωνRuler τῶνof the βασιλέωνkings τῆςof the γῆς.earth.

ΤῷTo the (one) ἀγαπῶντιloving ἡμᾶςus καὶand λύσαντιhaving loosed ἡμᾶςus ἐκout of τῶνthe ἁμαρτιῶνsins ἡμῶνof us ἐνin τῷthe αἵματιblood αὐτοῦ,—of him,— 6 καὶand ἐποίησενhe made ἡμᾶςus βασιλείαν,kingdom, ἱερεῖςpriests τῷto the θεῷGod καὶand πατρὶto Father αὐτοῦ,—of him,— αὐτῷto him the δόξαglory καὶand τὸthe κράτοςmight εἰςinto τοὺςthe αἰῶνας·ages; ἀμήν.amen.

7 ἸδοὺLook! ἔρχεταιHe is coming μετὰwith τῶνthe νεφελῶν,clouds, καὶand ὄψεταιwill see αὐτὸνhim πᾶςevery ὀφθαλμὸςeye καὶand οἵτινεςwhichever (ones) αὐτὸνhim ἐξεκέντησαν,stabbed out, καὶand κόψονταιthey will strike themselves ἐπ’upon αὐτὸνhim πᾶσαιall αἱthe φυλαὶtribes τῆςof the γῆς.earth. ναί,Yes, ἀμήν.amen.

9781949586121 BIBLE DIFFICULTIES THE NEW TESTAMENT DOCUMENTS

Revelation 1:6b

TR NU τοὺς αἰῶνας [τῶν αἰώνων]
“the ages of the ages” (= “forever and ever”)
א C Maj 046 1 1006 1611 1854 2053 itgig, ,  vg syrph,  arm eth

Variant/WH GENTI τους αιωνας
“the ages” (= “forever”)
P18 A P (2344) copbo 30 minuscules

The original word was τους αιωνας “for the ages” supported by (P18 A P (2344) copbo 30 minuscules) WH GENTI. A variant reading is τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων “the ages of the ages” supported by (א C Maj 046 1 1006 1611 1854 2053 itgig,h,ar vg syrph,  arm eth) TR NU. The documentary evidence is almost evenly split, but the shorter variant reading narrowly defeats the longer reading accepted by all translations and NU because of the earliest still existing manuscript P18, and the combined witness of A and 2344. The internal evidence points toward the shorter reading being original as well because this is the only case of the shorter form of forever in the book of Revelation. The longer form occurs twelve other times in Revelation (1:18; 4:9, 10; 5:13; 7:12; 10:6; 11:15; 14:11; 15:7; 19:3; 20:10; 22:5). There is no good argument as to why the scribes of P18 A P 2344 would deviate from the normal way of expressing forever (τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων). Therefore, the shorter reading is likely the original, which later scribes expanded this formula of praise. When we consider that Revelation 1:8 and 1:11 were expanded to conform with later words in Revelation, this seems reasonable.

APOSTOLIC FATHERS Lightfoot

Text

[Ιωαννης τα]ι[ς επτα] εκ[κλησ]ιαις
[ταις εν τη] Ασια χαρις υμειν και ειρη
[νη απο ο ων] και ο ην και ο ερχομε
[νος και απο τ[ων επτα πνευμα
[των α] εν[ω]πιον του θρονου αυ
[τ]ου και απο ΙΗ ΧΡ ο μαρτυς ο πι
στος ο πρωτοτοκος των νεκρω
και ο αρχων των βασιλεων της γης
τω αγαπωντι ημας και λυσαντι η
[μ]ας εκ των αμαρτιων ημων εν
[τ]ω αιματι αυτου και εποιησεν ημ[ι]
[βα]σ[ιλ]ειαν ιερεις του θυa και π[α]τρι
[αυτο]υ. αυτω το κρατος και η δοξα
[εις το]υς αιωνας αμην ιδου
[ερχε]ται μετα των νεφελων
[και οψε]ται αυτον πας οφθαλ
[μος και ο]ιτινες αυτον εξε[κεντησαν]

4ιωαννης τα]ι[ς επτα] εκ[κλησ]ιαις
ταις εν τη] ασια χαρις ϋμειν και ειρη
νη απο ο ων] και ο ην και ο ερχομε
νος και απο τ]ων επτα πνευμα
των α] εν[ω]πιον του θρονου αυ
τ]ου· 5και απο ι̅η̅ χ̅ρ̅ ο μαρτυς ο πι
στος ο πρωτοτοκος των νεκρω̅ ̅
και ο αρχων των βασιλεων της γης
τω αγαπωντι ημας και λυσαντι η
μ]ας εκ των αμαρτιων ημων εν
τ]ω αιματι αυτου 6και εποιησεν ημ[ας
βα]σ[ιλ]ειαν ϊερεις τωa θ̅«υ̅»ω̅ bκαι π[α]τρι
αυτο]υ· αυτω το κρατος και η δοξα
εις το]υς αιωνας αμην 7ϊδου
ερχε]ται μετα των νεφελων
και οψε]ται αυτον πας οφθαλ
μος και ο]ιτινες αυτον εξε

a του was changed to τω by erasing only the ο and adding ω superlinearly.
b υ was deleted by crossing out the letter.

The Complete Guide to Bible Translation-2

SOURCES

  • Edward D. Andrews, FROM SPOKEN WORDS TO SACRED TEXTS: Introduction-Intermediate New Testament Textual Studies (Cambridge, Ohio), 2021.
  • B. F. Westcott and F. J. A. Hort, Introduction to the New Testament in the Original Greek: Appendix (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1882)
  • Biblical Studies Press, The NET Bible First Edition Notes (Biblical Studies Press, 2006)
  • Bruce Manning Metzger, United Bible Societies, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Second Edition a Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament (4th Rev. Ed.) (London; New York: United Bible Societies, 1994),
  • Eberhard Nestle and Erwin Nestle, Nestle-Aland: NTG Apparatus Criticus, ed. Barbara Aland et al., 28. revidierte Auflage. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2012).
  • Dirk Jongkind, ed., The Greek New Testament: Apparatus (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2017).
  • Dirk Jongkind, ed., The Greek New Testament (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2017), Matt. 6:8.
  • Eberhard Nestle and Erwin Nestle, Nestle-Aland: Novum Testamentum Graece, ed. Barbara Aland et al., 28. revidierte Auflage. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2012)
  • Philip Wesley Comfort, A COMMENTARY ON THE MANUSCRIPTS AND TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Academic, 2015).
  • Philip W. Comfort, New Testament Text and Translation Commentary: Commentary on the Variant Readings of the Ancient New Testament Manuscripts and How They Relate to the Major English Translations (Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 2008).
  • Philip Wesley Comfort and David P. Barrett, The Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts: Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts, 2 Volume Set The (English and Greek Edition) (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Academic, 2019)
  • Rick Brannan and Israel Loken, The Lexham Textual Notes on the Bible, Lexham Bible Reference Series (Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2014).
  • Roger L. Omanson and Bruce Manning Metzger, A Textual Guide to the Greek New Testament: An Adaptation of Bruce M. Metzger’s Textual Commentary for the Needs of Translators (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2006).
  • Wallace B., Daniel (n.d.). Retrieved from The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts: http://csntm.org/
  • Wilker, Wieland (n.d.). Retrieved from An Online Textual Commentary on the Greek Gospels: http://www.willker.de/wie/TCG/index.html

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