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The Gospel According to John
- Who Wrote: The Apostle John
- Where Written: Ephesus
- When Written: c. 98 C.E.
The Word Became Flesh
1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 This one was in the beginning with God. 3 All things came into being through him, and apart from him, not one thing came into being that has come into being. 4 In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 5 And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overpowered it.
John, the Witness to Christ
6 A man was sent from God, whose name was John. 7 This one came as a witness, in order that he could bear witness about the light, so that all might believe through him. 8 That one was not the light but came that he might bear witness about the light.
Some Rejected and Some Received Him
9 The true light, who gives light to every man, was coming into the world. 10 He was in the world, and the world came into being through him, and the world did not know him. 11 He came to his own people, and his own people did not receive him. 12 On the other hand, as many as received him, he gave authority to them to become children of God, to the ones believing in his name; 13 who were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.
Christ is Greater Than John or Moses
14 And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have seen his glory, glory as of the only begotten one from the Father, full of grace and truth. 15 (John bore witness about him, and cried out, saying, “This one was he about whom I said, the one who comes after me is ahead of me: because he existed before me.”) 16 For from his fullness we have all received, and grace upon grace. 17 For the law was given through Moses, grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 18 No one has seen God at any time; the only begotten God who is in the bosom of the Father, that one has made him fully known.
John the Baptist Prepares the Way
19 And this is the witness of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to him to ask him, “Who are you? 20 And he confessed, and did not deny; but confessed, “I am not the Christ.” 21 And they asked him, “What then? Are you Elijah?” And he said, “I am not.” Are you the prophet?” And he answered, “No.” 22 Therefore, they said to him, “Who are you? So that we may give an answer to those who sent us. What do you say about yourself?” 23 He said, “I am the voice of one crying out in the wilderness, ‘make straight the way of the Lord,’ just as Isaiah the prophet said.”
The Testimony of John the Baptist
24 (Now they had been sent from the Pharisees.) 25 They asked him and said to him “Why then are you baptizing, if you are neither the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?” 26 John answered them, saying, “I baptize in water. In your midst stands one whom you do not know, 27 the one who comes after me, of whom I am not worthy to untie the strap of his sandal.” 28 These things took place in Bethany across the Jordan, where John was baptizing.
The Lamb of God
29 On the next day he saw Jesus coming to him, and said, “Look, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world! 30 This one is the one about whom I said, ‘After me is coming a man who is ahead of me, because he existed before me. 31 And I did not know him, but in order that he might be manifested to Israel, because of this I came baptizing in water.” 32 And John bore witness saying, “I have seen the Spirit descend from heaven like a dove, and it remained on him. 33 I myself did not recognize him, but the one who sent me to baptize in water that one said to me, ‘the one upon whom you see the Spirit descending and remaining upon him, this one is the one who baptizes in the Holy Spirit.’ 34 And I have seen, and I have borne witness that this one is the Son of God.”
The First Disciples Are Called
35 Again on the next day John was standing with two of his disciples, 36 and looking at Jesus as he was walking by, he said, “Behold, the Lamb of God!” 37 And the two disciples heard him saying this, and they followed Jesus. 38 And Jesus, turning around and seeing them following him, said to them, “What do you seek?” And they said to him, “Rabbi” (which means when translated “Teacher”), “where are you staying?” 39 He said to them, “Come, and you will see.” So they came and saw where he was staying, and they stayed with him that day, it was about the tenth hour. 40 One of the two who heard John speak and followed Jesus was Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother. 41 This one first found his own brother Simon, and said to him, “We have found the Messiah” (which means when translated Christ). 42 He brought him to Jesus. Jesus looked at him, and said, “You are Simon the son of John. You shall be called Cephas” (which is translated Peter).
Philip and Nathanael are Called
43 On the next day he wanted to depart for Galilee, and he found Philip. And Jesus said to him, “Follow me.” 44 Now Philip was from Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. 45 Philip found Nathanael and said to him, “We have found the one whom Moses wrote about in the law and the prophets wrote about, Jesus, the son of Joseph, from Nazareth.” 46 And Nathanael said to him, “Can anything good come out of Nazareth?” Philip said to him, “Come and see.” 47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward him and said of him, “Look, truly an Israelite indeed, in whom there is no deceit!” 48 Nathanael said to him, “From where do you know me?” Jesus answered and said to him, “Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you.” 49 Nathanael answered him, “Rabbi, you are the Son of God! You are the King of Israel!” 50 Jesus answered and said to him, “Because I said to you that I saw you under the fig tree, do you believe? You will see greater things than these.” 51 And he said to him, “Truly, truly, I say to you, you will see heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man.”
The Wedding at Cana
2 And on the third day there was a wedding in Cana of Galilee, and the mother of Jesus was there. 2 And both Jesus and his disciples were invited to the wedding. 3 And when the wine ran out, the mother of Jesus said to him, “They have no wine.” 4 And Jesus said to her, “What have I to do with you, woman? My hour has not yet come.” 5 His mother said to the servants, “Whatever he tells you, do it.”
Jesus’ Orders are Obeyed
6 Now there were six stone water jars there for the Jewish rites of purification, each holding two or three measures. 7Jesus said to them, “Fill the water jars with water.” And they filled them to the brim. 8And he said to them, “Now draw some out and take it to the head steward of the feast.” So they took it. 9 When the head steward of the feast tasted the water which had become wine and did not know where it came from (though the servants who had drawn the water knew), the head steward of the feast called the bridegroom 10 and said to him, “Every man serves the good wine first, and when people have drunk a great deal, then the inferior wine. But you have kept the good wine until now.” 11 This, the first of his signs, Jesus performed at Cana in Galilee, and manifested his glory. And his disciples believed in him.
12 After this he went down to Capernaum, with his mother and his brothers and his disciples, and they stayed there for a few days.
Jesus Cleanses the Temple
13 Now the Passover of the Jews was near, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 14 In the temple he found those who were selling oxen and sheep and doves, and the moneychangers seated. 15 And making a whip of cords, he drove them all out of the temple, both the sheep and oxen. And he poured out the coins of the moneychangers and overturned their tables. 16 And he told those who sold the doves, “Take these things away! Do not make my Father’s house a market house.” 17 His disciples remembered that it was written, “Zeal for your house will consume me.”
Ignorance of the Jewish Leaders
18 So the Jews answered and said to him, “What sign do you show us for doing these things?” 19 Jesus answered and said to them, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” 20 Then the Jews said, “It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and will you raise it up in three days?” 21 But he was speaking about the temple of his body. 22 When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this, and they believed the Scripture and the word that Jesus had spoken.
Insincerity of the Jewish People
23 Now when he was in Jerusalem at the Passover, during the feast, many believed in his name when they saw the signs that he was doing. 24 But Jesus himself was not entrusting himself to them, because he knew all men 25 and needed no one to bear witness about man, for he himself knew what was in man.
Conversation with Nicodemus
3 Now there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews. 2 This man came to him at night and said to him, “Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher have come from God, for no one is able to perform these signs that you perform unless God is with him.” 3 Jesus answered and said to him, “Truly, truly I say to you, unless someone is born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.” 4 Nicodemus said to him, “How can a man be born when he is old? He cannot enter into the womb of his mother for the second time and be born, can he?”
A Physical and Natural Illustration
5 Jesus answered, “Truly, truly I say to you, unless someone is born from water and spirit, he is not able to enter into the kingdom of God. 6 The one having been born from the flesh is flesh, and the one having been born from the spirit is spirit. 7 Do not marvel that I said to you, ‘It is necessary for you to be born again.’ 8 The wind blows wherever it wants, and you hear the sound of it, but you do not know where it comes from and where it is going. So is everyone having been born from the spirit.”
The Humbling of Nicodemus
9 Nicodemus answered and said to him, “How can these things be?” 10 Jesus answered and said to him, “Are you the teacher of Israel and yet you do not understand these things? 11 Truly, truly I say to you, we speak what we know, and we bear witness to what we have seen, but you do not receive our testimony! 12 If I have told you earthly things and you do not believe; how will you believe if I tell you heavenly things? 13 And no one has ascended into heaven except the one who descended from heaven, the Son of man. 14 And just as Moses lifted up the snake in the wilderness, so the Son of man must be lifted up, 15 so that everyone believing in him will have eternal life.”
Summary of Salvation and Judgment
16 For God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten Son, in order that whoever believes in him will not be destroyed but have eternal life. 17 For God did not send his Son into the world in order that he should judge the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him. 18 The one who believes in him is not judged, but the one who does not believe has already been judged, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God. 19 And this is the judgment: that the light has come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the light, because their works were wicked. 20 For the one who practices wicked things hates the light and does not come to the light, so that his works may not be exposed. 21 But the one who practices the truth comes to the light, in order that his works may be revealed that they are accomplished in God.
Jesus’ Disciples Are Baptizing
22 After these things Jesus and his disciples went into Judean countryside, and there he spent time with them and was baptizing. 23 Now John was also baptizing at Aenon near Salim, because there was plenty of water there, and they were coming and were being baptized. 24 (For John had not yet been thrown into prison.)
An Argument, Jealousy Arises
25 Therefore a dispute arose on the part of the disciples of John with a Jew concerning purification. 26 And they came to John and said to him, “Rabbi, the man that was with you on the other side of the Jordan, to whom you have borne witness, look, this one is baptizing, and all are going to him!”
Jesus is Bridegroom, John is Friend of
27 John answered and said, “A man cannot receive one thing unless it is given to him from heaven! 28 You yourselves bear witness about me that I said, ‘I am not the Christ, but I have been sent before that one.’ 29 The one who has the bride is the bridegroom. But the friend of the bridegroom, who stands and hears him, rejoices greatly on account of the voice of the bridegroom. Therefore, this joy of mine is now complete. 30 That one must increase, but I must decrease.”
Jesus Becomes Greater, John Less
31 The one who comes from above is over all others. The one who is from the earth is from the earth and speaks of things of the earth; the one who comes from heaven is over all others. 32 What he has seen and heard, this he bears witness, and no man is accepting his witness. 33 The one who accepts his witness has attested that God is true. 34 For the one whom God sent speaks the words of God, for he does not give the spirit by measure. 35 The Father loves the Son and has given all things into his hand. 36 The one believing in the Son has eternal life, but the one who disobeys the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him.
Why Jesus Leaves Judea
4 Now when Jesus knew that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus was making and baptizing more disciples than John 2 (although Jesus himself was not baptizing, but only his disciples), 3 he left Judea and departed again for Galilee. 4 And it was necessary for him to go through Samaria.
Where Jesus Stops
5 Accordingly he came to a city of Samaria called Sychar, near the field that Jacob had given to his son Joseph. 6 And Jacob’s well was there, so Jesus, tired out from the journey, was sitting at the well. It was about the sixth hour.
Samaritan Woman at Jacob’s Well
7 A woman of Samaria came to draw water. Jesus said to her, “Give me a drink.” 8 (For his disciples had gone away into the city to buy food.) 9 Therefore the Samaritan woman said to him: “How is it that you, a Jew, ask me for a drink, when I am a Samaritan woman?” (For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.)
Jesus Has Living Water
10 Jesus answered and said to her, “If you had known the gift of God and who it is who says to you, ‘Give me a drink,’ you would have asked him, and he would have given you living water.” 11 The woman said to him, “Sir, you have no bucket, and the well is deep! From where then do you get this living water? 12 You are not greater than our father Jacob, who gave us the well and drank from it himself, and his sons and his livestock?”
The Woman Desires the Living Water
13 Jesus answered and said to her, “Everyone who drinks of this water will be thirsty again. 14 But whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never be thirsty for eternity, but the water that I will give to him will become in him a well of water springing up to eternal life.” 15 The woman said to him, “Sir, give me this water, so that I will not be thirsty or have to come here to draw water!” 16 He said to her, “Go, call your husband and come here.” 17 The woman answered and said to him, “I do not have a husband.” Jesus said to her, “You have said rightly, ‘A husband I do not have’; 18 for you have had five husbands, and the man you have now is not your husband; this you have said truthfully!”
Worship With Spirit and Truth
19 The woman said to him, “Sir, I perceive that you are a prophet. 20 Our fathers worshiped on this mountain, and you people say that in Jerusalem is the place where persons ought to worship.” 21 Jesus said to her, “Believe me, woman, the hour is coming when neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father. 22 You worship what you do not know. We worship what we know, because salvation is from the Jews. 23 But the hour is coming, and it is now, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for indeed the Father is seeking such people to worship him. 24 God is spirit, and those worshiping him must worship in spirit and truth.” 25 The woman said to him, “I know that Messiah is coming,” (the one who is called Christ). When he comes, he will declare to us all things.” 26 Jesus said to her, “I who speak to you am he.”
Jesus is the Long-Awaited Messiah
27 And at this point his disciples arrived, and they marveled that he was speaking with a woman. However, no one said, “What do you seek?” or “Why are you speaking with her?” 28 So the woman left her water jar and went away into the city and said to the men, 29 “Come, see a man who told me all things that I ever did! Perhaps this one is the Christ?” 30 They went out from the city and were coming to him.
Preaching the Good News
31 Meanwhile the disciples were asking him, saying, “Rabbi, eat something!” 32 But he said to them, “I have food to eat that you do not know about.” 33 Therefore the disciples began to say to one another, “No one brought him anything to eat, has he?” 34 Jesus said to them, “My food is that I do the will of the one who sent me and complete his work. 35 Do you not say, ‘There are yet four months and the harvest comes’? Behold, I say to you, lift up your eyes and look at the fields, that they are white for harvest already. 36 The one harvesting receives wages and gathers fruit for eternal life, in order that the one sowing and the one harvesting might rejoice together. 37 For in this instance the saying is true, ‘the one is sowing, and another is harvesting.’ 38 I sent you to harvest what you have not labored for; others have labored, and you have entered into their labor.”
The Samaritans and the Savior of the World
39 Now from that city many of the Samaritans put faith in him because of the word of the woman who testified, “He told me all the things I did.” 40 Therefore when the Samaritans came to him, they began asking him to stay with them, and he stayed there two days. 41 And many more believed because of his word, 42 and they were saying to the woman, “No longer because of what you said do we believe, for we ourselves have heard, and we know that this one is truly the savior of the world!”
Return to Galilee
43 After the two days he left there for Galilee. 44 For Jesus himself testified that a prophet has no honor in his own homeland. 45 When he came to Galilee, the Galileans welcomed him, because they had seen all the things he had done in Jerusalem at the feast, for they also had gone to the festival.
An Official’s Son Is Healed
46 Now he came again to Cana in Galilee, where he had made the water wine. Now there was a certain official of the king whose son was sick in Capernaum. 47 When this man heard that Jesus had come from Judea into Galilee, went to him and began asking that he come down and heal his son, for he was about to die. 48 However, Jesus said to him, “Unless you people see signs and wonders, you will never believe!” 49 The official of the king said to him, “Lord, come down before my child dies!” 50 Jesus said to him, “Go, your son will live.” The man believed the word that Jesus spoke to him, and he departed.
A Father’s Persistence Pays Off
51 Now as he was going down, his slaves met him, saying that the boy was living. 52 Therefore he inquired from them the hour at which he had gotten better. Then they said to him, “Yesterday at the seventh hour the fever left him.” 53 Therefore the father knew that it was that same hour at which Jesus said to him, “Your son will live,” and he himself believed, and his whole household. 54 Now this is again a second sign Jesus performed when he came out of Judea into Galilee.
The Healing at the Pool of Bethesda
5 After these things there was a feast of the Jews, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.
2 Now there is in Jerusalem by the Sheep Gate a pool, in Hebrew called Bethsaida, which has five colonnades. 3 In these lay a multitude of sick ones, blind, lame, and paralyzed. 4― 5 And a certain man was there who had been in his sickness for thirty-eight years. 6 When Jesus saw this man lying there and knew that he had been there a long time already, he said to him, “Do you want to become well?” 7 The sick man answered him, “Sir, I have no one to put me into the pool when the water is stirred up, and while I am going another steps down before me.” 8 Jesus said to him, “Get up, pick up your cot, and walk.” 9 And immediately the man became well, and he picked up his cot and walked.
The Crippled Man and the Critics
Now on that day it was the Sabbath. 10 So the Jews were saying to the man who had been healed, “It is the Sabbath, and it is not lawful for you to carry your cot.” 11 But he answered them, “The man who made me well, that man said to me, ‘Take up your cot, and walk.'” 12 They asked him, “Who is the man who said to you, ‘Take up your cot and walk’?” 13 But the man who had been healed did not know who it was, for Jesus had withdrawn, there being a crowd in the place.
The Crippled Man’s Final Meeting with Christ
14 After these things Jesus found him in the temple and said to him, “See, you are well! Sin no more, that nothing worse may happen to you.” 15 The man went away and told the Jews it was Jesus who had healed him.
The Accusations Against Jesus
16 And on account of this the Jews were persecuting Jesus, because he was doing these things on the Sabbath. 17 But he answered them, “My Father is working until now, and I am working.” 18 On this account the Jews were seeking all the more to kill him, because not only was he breaking the Sabbath, but he was even calling God his own Father, making himself equal with God.
The Father Gives the Son Authority
19 So Jesus answered and was saying to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of his own accord, but only what he sees the Father doing. For whatever things that One does, these things the Son does likewise. 20 For the Father loves the Son and shows him all the things he himself does. And greater works than these will he show him, so that you may marvel. 21 For just as the Father raises the dead and makes them alive, so also the Son makes alive whom he wants to. 22 For the Father judges no one, but has given all judgment to the Son, 23 in order that all may honor the Son, just as they honor the Father. The one who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent him. 24 Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life. He does not come into judgment but has passed from death to life.
25 “Truly, truly, I say to you, an hour is coming, and is now here, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live. 26 For just as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself. 27And he has given him authority to execute judgment, because Son of Man he is. 28 Do not marvel at this, because an hour is coming when all who are in the memorial tombs will hear his voice 29 and come out, those who have done good things to a resurrection of life, and those who have practiced wicked things to the resurrection of judgment.
The Witnesses Concerning Jesus
30 “I can do nothing on my own. As I hear, I judge, and my judgment is just, because I seek not my own will but the will of him who sent me. 31 If I alone bear witness about myself, my witness is not true. 32There is another who bears witness about me, and I know that the witness which he bears about me is true. 33 You sent to John, and he has borne witness to the truth. 34Not that the testimony that I receive is from man, but I say these things so that you may be saved. 35That man was a burning and shining lamp, and you were willing to rejoice for an hour in his light. 36But the witness that I have is greater than that of John. For the works that the Father has given me to accomplish, the very works that I am doing, bear witness about me that the Father has sent me. 37And the Father who sent me has himself borne witness about me. You have neither heard his voice at any time nor seen his form; 38and you do not have his word remaining in you, because you do not believe the one whom he has sent.
39 You search the Scriptures because you think that in them you have eternal life; and it is these that bear witness about me. 40 And yet you do not want to come to me that you may have life. 41 I do not accept glory from men, 42 but I know that you do not have the love of God in you. 43 I have come in the name of my Father, and you do not receive me. If another comes in his own name, you will receive that one. 44 How can you believe, when you are accepting glory from one another and do not seek the glory that comes from the only God? 45 Do not think that I will accuse you to the Father. There is one who accuses you, Moses, in whom you have put your hope. 46For if you believed Moses, you would believe me; for that one wrote of me. 47But if you do not believe the writings of that one, how will you believe my words?”
Jesus Feeds the Five Thousand
6 After this Jesus went away to the other side of the Sea of Galilee, which is the Sea of Tiberias. 2 And a large crowd was following him, because they saw the signs that he was doing on the sick. 3 Jesus went up on the mountain, and there he sat with his disciples. 4 Now the Passover, the feast of the Jews, was near. 5 Lifting up his eyes, then, and seeing that a large crowd was coming toward him, Jesus said to Philip, “Where are we to buy bread, so that these people may eat?” 6 He was saying this to test him, for he himself knew what he himself was going to do. 7 Philip answered him, “Two hundred denarii worth of bread would not be enough for each of them to get a little.” 8 One of his disciples, Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter, said to him, 9 “There is a boy here who has five barley loaves and two fish, but what are they for so many?” 10 Jesus said, “Have the men sit down.” Now there was much grass in the place. So the men sat down, about five thousand in number. 11 So Jesus then took the loaves, and when he had given thanks, he distributed them to those who were seated. Likewise also as much of the small fishes as they wanted. 12 And when they had eaten their fill, he told his disciples, “Gather up the leftover fragments, that nothing is lost.” 13 So they gathered them up and filled twelve baskets with fragments from the five barley loaves left by those who had eaten. 14 When the people saw the sign that he had done, they began to say, “This is indeed the Prophet who is to come into the world!”
15 Knowing then that they were about to come and take him by force to make him king, Jesus withdrew again to the mountain by himself.
Jesus Walks on Water
16 When evening came, his disciples went down to the sea, 17 getting into a boat, they began to go across the sea to Capernaum. It had already become dark, and Jesus had not yet come to them. 18 The sea became rough because a strong wind was blowing. 19 When they had rowed about three or four miles, they saw Jesus walking on the sea and coming near the boat, and they were frightened. 20 But he said to them, “It is I; do not be afraid.” 21 Then they were glad to take him into the boat, and immediately the boat was at the land to which they were going.
I Am the Bread of Life
22 On the next day the crowd that remained on the other side of the sea saw that there had been only one boat there, and that Jesus had not entered the boat with his disciples, but that his disciples had gone away alone. 23 Other boats from Tiberias came near the place where they had eaten the bread after the Lord had given thanks. 24 So when the crowd saw that Jesus was not there, nor his disciples, they themselves got into the boats and went to Capernaum, to look for Jesus.
25 When they found him on the other side of the sea, they said to him, “Rabbi, when did you get here?” 26 Jesus answered them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, you are looking for me, not because you saw signs, but because you ate your fill of the loaves. 27 Do not work for the food that perishes, but for the food that endures to eternal life, which the Son of Man will give to you. For on him God the Father has set his seal.” 28 Then they said to him, “What must we do, to be doing the works of God?” 29 Jesus answered them, “This is the work of God, that you believe in the one whom that One has sent.” 30 So they said to him, “Then what sign do you do, that we may see and believe you? What work do you perform? 31 Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness; as it is written, ‘He gave them bread from heaven to eat.’” 32 Jesus then said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, it was not Moses who gave you the bread from heaven, but my Father gives you the true bread from heaven. 33 For the bread of God is the one who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.” 34 They said to him, “Sir, always give us this bread.”
35 Jesus said to them, “I am the bread of life; whoever comes to me shall not hunger, and whoever exercises faith in me shall never thirst. 36 But I said to you that you have seen me and yet do not believe. 37 All that the Father gives me will come to me, and the one who comes to me I will never cast out. 38 For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will but the will of him who sent me. 39 And this is the will of him who sent me, that I should lose nothing of all that he has given me but raise it up on the last day. 40 For this is the will of my Father, that everyone who looks on the Son and exercises faith in him should have eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day.”
Jesus is the Bread of Life
41 So the Jews grumbled about him, because he said, “I am the bread that came down from heaven.” 42 And they began saying, “Is this not Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How does he now say, ‘I have come down from heaven’?” 43 Jesus answered them, “Do not grumble among yourselves. 44 No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him. And I will raise him up on the last day. 45 It is written in the Prophets, ‘And they will all be taught by the Lord.’ Everyone who has heard and learned from the Father comes to me. 46 Not that anyone has seen the Father except he who is from God; he has seen the Father. 47 Truly, truly, I say to you, he that believes has eternal life. 48 I am the bread of life. 49 Your forefathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. 50 This is the bread that comes down from heaven, so that anyone may eat of it and not die. 51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. And the bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.”
Spiritual Eating and Drinking
52 The Jews then disputed among themselves, saying, “How can this man give us his flesh to eat?” 53 So Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in yourselves. 54 He that feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. 55 For my flesh is true food, and my blood is true drink. 56 Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me, and I in him. 57 Just as the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so he that feeds on me, he also will live because of me. 58 This is the bread that came down from heaven, not like the bread the forefathers ate, and died. He that feeds on this bread will live forever.” 59 Jesus said these things in the synagogue, as he taught at Capernaum.
The Words of Eternal Life
60 When many of his disciples heard it, they said, “This is a hard saying; who can listen to it?” 61 But Jesus, knowing in himself that his disciples were grumbling about this, said to them, “Does this cause you to be offended? 62 Then what if you were to see the Son of Man ascending to where he was before? 63 It is the spirit who gives life; the flesh is no help at all. The words that I have spoken to you are spirit and are life. 64 But there are some of you who do not believe.” (For Jesus knew from the beginning who are the one not believing, and who it was who would betray him.) 65 And he said, “This is why I told you that no one can come to me unless it is granted him by the Father.”
Jesus Addresses the Chosen Ones
66 After this many of his disciples turned back and no longer walked with him. 67 Therefore Jesus said to the Twelve, “Do you want to go away as well?” 68 Simon Peter answered him, “Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life, 69 and we have believed, and have come to know, that you are the Holy One of God.” 70 Jesus answered them, “I chose you twelve, did I not? And yet one of you is a devil.” 71 He was speaking of Judas the son of Simon Iscariot, for this one, of the Twelve, was going to betray him.
Jesus at the Feast of Booths
7 After these things Jesus went about in Galilee. He would not go about in Judea, because the Jews were seeking to kill him. 2 Now the feast of the Jews, the festival of tabernacles, was near. 3 So his brothers said to him, “Leave from here and go to Judea, so that your disciples also may see the works you are doing. 4 For no one does anything in secret if he seeks to be known publicly. If you do these things, show yourself to the world.” 5 For not even his brothers believed in him. 6 Jesus said to them, “My time has not yet come, but your time is always ready. 7 The world is not able to hate you, but it hates me because I testify about it that its works are evil. 8 You go up to the feast. I am not going up to this feast, for my time has not yet fully come.” 9 After saying these things, he remained in Galilee.
Some Feel He is a Good Man
10 But after his brothers had gone up to the feast, then he also went up himself, not publicly but in secret. 11 The Jews were looking for him at the feast, and saying, “Where is that man?” 12 And there was much grumbling about him among the people. While some said, “He is a good man,” others said, “No, he is leading the people astray.” 13 Yet for fear of the Jews no one spoke publicly about him.
The Response from the Savior
14 About the middle of the feast Jesus went up into the temple and began teaching. 15 The Jews therefore marveled, saying, “How is it that this man has a knowledge of letters, when he has never studied?” 16 So Jesus answered them, “My teaching is not mine, but belongs to him that sent me. 17 If anyone wants to do his will, he will know whether the teaching is from God or whether I am speaking on my own authority. 18 The one who speaks on his own authority seeks his own glory; but the one who seeks the glory of him who sent him, this one is true, and there is no unrighteousness in him. 19 Has not Moses given you the law? Yet none of you keeps the law. Why are you seeking to kill me?” 20 The crowd answered, “You have a demon! Who is seeking to kill you?” 21 Jesus answered them, “I did one work, and you all marvel at it. 22 Moses has given you circumcision (not that it is from Moses, but from the forefathers), and you circumcise a man on the Sabbath. 23 If on the Sabbath a man receives circumcision, so that the law of Moses may not be broken, are you angry with me because on the Sabbath I made a man completely well? 24 Do not judge by appearances, but judge with righteous judgment.”
Can This Be the Christ?
25 Some of the people of Jerusalem therefore said, “Is not this the man whom they seek to kill? 26 And here he is, speaking in public, and they say nothing to him! Can it be that the authorities really know that this is the Christ? 27 But we know where this man comes from, and when the Christ appears, no one will know where he comes from.” 28 So Jesus cried out, as he taught in the temple, “You know me, and you know where I come from. But I have not come of my own accord. He who sent me is true, and him you do not know. 29 I know him, for I come from him, and that One sent me.” 30 So they were seeking to seize him, but no one laid a hand on him, because his hour had not yet come. 31 Yet many of the crowd put faith in him. They said, “When the Christ appears, will he do more signs than this man has done, will he?”
Officers Sent to Arrest Jesus
32 The Pharisees heard the crowd murmuring these things about him, and the chief priests and Pharisees sent officers to arrest him. 33 Jesus then said, “I will be with you a little longer, and then I am going to him who sent me. 34 You will seek me and you will not find me. Where I am you cannot come.” 35 The Jews said to one another, “Where does this man intend to go that we will not find him? Does he intend to go to the Dispersion among the Greeks and teach the Greeks, does he? 36 What does he mean by saying, ‘You will seek me and you will not find me,’ and, ‘Where I am you cannot come’?”
Rivers of Living Water
37 On the last day, the great day of the feast, Jesus stood up and cried out, “If anyone thirsts, let him come to me and drink. 38 Whoever puts faith in me, as the Scripture has said, ‘Out of his heart will flow rivers of living water.’ ” 39 Now this he said about the spirit, whom those who put faith in him were to receive, for as yet the spirit had not been given, because Jesus was not yet glorified.
Division Among the People
40 When they heard these words, some of the crowd said, “This man is truly the Prophet.” 41 Others were saying, “This man is the Christ!” But others were saying, “No, for the Christ does not come from Galilee, does he? 42 Has not the Scripture said that the Christ comes from the offspring of David, and comes from Bethlehem, the village where David was?” 43 So there was a division among the crowd over him. 44 Some of them wanting to seize him, but no one laid hands on him.
45 The officers then came to the chief priests and Pharisees, who said to them, “Why did you not bring him?” 46 The officers answered, “No one ever spoke like this man!” 47 The Pharisees answered them, “You have not also been deceived, have you? 48 Not one of the rulers or of the Pharisees has put faith in him, have they? 49 But this crowd that does not know the law is accursed.” 50 Nicodemus, who had come to him before, and who was one of them, said to them, 51 “Our law does not judge a man unless it first hears from him and knows what he is doing, does it?” 52 They answered and said to him, “You are not also from Galilee, are you? Search and see that no prophet arises from Galilee.”
7:53–8:11 —— 
I am the Light of the World
12 Again Jesus spoke to them, saying, “I am the light of the world. He that follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.” 13 So the Pharisees said to him, “You are bearing witness about yourself; your witness is not true.” 14 Jesus answered and said to them, “Even if I do bear witness about myself, my witness is true, for I know where I came from and where I am going, but you do not know where I come from or where I am going. 15 You judge according to the flesh; I judge no one. 16 Yet even if I do judge, my judgment is true, because I am not alone, but the Father who sent me is with me. 17 Also, in your Law it is written that the witness of two men is true. 18 I am the one who bears witness about myself, and the Father who sent me bears witness about me.” 19 They said to him therefore, “Where is your Father?” Jesus answered, “You know neither me nor my Father. If you knew me, you would know my Father also.” 20 These words he spoke in the treasury, as he was teaching in the temple; but no one took hold him, because his hour had not yet come.
21 So he said to them again, “I am going away, and you will seek me, and you will die in your sin. Where I am going, you cannot come.” 22 So the Jews said, “Will he kill himself, since he says, ‘Where I am going, you cannot come’?” 23 He said to them, “You are from below; I am from above. You are of this world; I am not of this world. 24 I told you that you would die in your sins, for unless you believe that I am he, you will die in your sins.” 25 So they said to him, “Who are you?” Jesus said to them, “Just what I have been saying to you from the beginning. 26 I have much to say about you and much to judge, but he who sent me is true, and I declare to the world what I have heard from him.” 27 They did not understand that he had been speaking to them about the Father. 28 So Jesus said to them, “When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am he, and that I do nothing on my own authority, but speak just as the Father taught me. 29 And he who sent me is with me. He has not left me alone, for I always do the things that are pleasing to him.” 30 As he was saying these things, many put faith in him.
The Truth Will Set You Free
31 So Jesus said to the Jews who had believed him, “If you remain in my word, you are truly my disciples, 32 and you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.” 33 They answered him, “We are offspring of Abraham and have never been enslaved to anyone. How is it that you say, ‘You will become free’?”
Enslaved to Sin
34 Jesus answered them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, everyone who practices sin is a slave to sin. 35 The slave does not remain in the house forever; the son remains forever. 36 So if the Son sets you free, you will be free indeed. 37 I know that you are offspring of Abraham; yet you seek to kill me because my word finds no place in you. 38 I speak of what I have seen with my Father, and you do what you have heard from your father.”
You Are of Your Father the Devil
39 They answered him, “Abraham is our father.” Jesus said to them, “If you are Abraham’s children, you would be doing the works Abraham did, 40 but now you seek to kill me, a man who has told you the truth that I heard from God. Abraham did not do this. 41 You are doing the works your father did.” They said to him, “We were not born of sexual immorality. We have one Father, even God.” 42 Jesus said to them, “If God were your Father, you would love me, for I came from God and I am here. I came not of my own accord, but that One sent me. 43 Why do you not understand what I am saying? It is because you are not able to hear my word. 44 You are of your father the devil, and your will is to do your father’s desires. That one was a manslayer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks out of his own character, for he is a liar and the father of lies. 45 But because I tell the truth, you do not believe in me. 46 Which one of you convicts me of sin? If I tell the truth, why do you not believe in me? 47 Whoever is of God hears the words of God. The reason why you do not hear them is that you are not of God.”
Before Abraham Was Born
48 The Jews answered him, “Are we not right in saying that you are a Samaritan and have a demon?” 49 Jesus answered, “I do not have a demon, but I honor my Father, and you dishonor me. 50 Yet I do not seek my own glory; there is One who seeks it, and he is the judge. 51 Truly, truly, I say to you, if anyone keeps my word, he will never see death.” 52 The Jews said to him, “Now we know that you have a demon! Abraham died, as did the prophets, yet you say, ‘If anyone keeps my word, he will never taste death.’ 53 Are you greater than our father Abraham, who died? And the prophets died! Who do you claim to be?” 54 Jesus answered, “If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing. It is my Father who glorifies me, of whom you say, ‘he is our God.’ 55 But you have not known him. I know him. If I were to say that I do not know him, I would be a liar like you, but I do know him and I keep his word. 56 Your father Abraham rejoiced that he would see my day. He saw it and rejoiced.” 57 So the Jews said to him, “You are not yet fifty years old, and have you seen Abraham?” 58 Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was
Jesus Heals a Man Born Blind
9 Now as he was passing by, he saw a man blind from birth. 2 And his disciples asked him, “Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he should be born blind?” 3 Jesus answered, “neither this man sinned, or his parents, but that the works of God might be demonstrated in him. 4 We must work the works of him who sent me while it is day; night is coming, when no man can work. 5 As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world.” 6 After he said these things, he spit on the ground and made a clay with the saliva and put his clay upon the man’s eyes 7 and said to him, “Go, wash in the pool of Siloam” (which is translated ‘Sent’). So he went and washed and came back seeing.
The Neighbors and the Blind Man
8 Then the neighbors and those who had seen him before as a beggar were saying, “Is this not the man who used to sit and beg?” 9 Some were saying, “It is he.” Others said, “No, but he is like him.” That one kept saying, “I am he.” 10 So they were saying to him, “Then how were your eyes opened?” 11 He answered, “The man called Jesus made clay and smeared it on my eyes and said to me, ‘Go to Siloam and wash.’ So I went and washed and received my sight.” 12 They said to him, “Where is that man?” He said, “I do not know.”
13 They led the once-blind man himself to the Pharisees. 14 Now it was a Sabbath day when Jesus made the clay and opened his eyes. 15 So the Pharisees again asked him how he had received his sight. And he said to them, “He put clay on my eyes, and I washed, and I see.” 16 Therefore, some of the Pharisees were saying, “This man is not from God, for he does not keep the Sabbath.” But others were saying, “How can a man who is a sinner do such signs?” And there was a division among them. 17 So then they said again to the blind man, “What do you say about him, since he has opened your eyes?” The man said, “He is a prophet.”
18 However, the Jews did not believe that he had been blind and had received his sight, until they called the parents of the man who had received his sight 19 and asked them, “Is this your son, who you say was born blind? How then does he now see?” 20 His parents answered, “We know that this is our son and that he was born blind. 21 But how he now sees we do not know, nor do we know who opened his eyes. Ask him; he is of age. He must speak for himself.” 22 (His parents said these things because they were fearing the Jews, for the Jews had already agreed that if anyone should confess Jesus to be Christ, he was to be put out of the synagogue. 23 Therefore his parents said, “He is of age; ask him.”)
The Pharisees Denounce Jesus
24 Therefore for the second time they called the man who had been blind and said to him, “Give glory to God. We know that this man is a sinner.” 25 Then he answered, “Whether he is a sinner I do not know. One thing I do know, that though I was blind, now I see.” 26 Therefore, they said to him, “What did he do to you? How did he open your eyes?” 27 He answered them, “I have told you already, and you would not listen. Why do you want to hear it again? You do not want to become his disciples also, do You?” 28 And they reviled him, saying, “You are a disciple of that man, but we are disciples of Moses. 29 We know that God has spoken to Moses, but as for this man, we do not know where he comes from.” 30 The man answered, “Why, this is an amazing thing! You do not know where he comes from, and yet he opened my eyes. 31 We know that God does not listen to sinners, but if anyone is a worshiper of God and does his will, God listens to this one. 32 From of old has it been heard that anyone opened the eyes of a man born blind. 33 If this man were not from God, he could do nothing at all.” 34 They answered him, “You were born in utter sin, and would you teach us?” And they cast him out.
Jesus and the Blind Man
35 Jesus heard that they had thrown him out, and having found him he said, “Do you believe in the Son of Man?” 36 The man answered, “And who is he, sir, that I may believe in him?” 37 Jesus said to him, “You have seen him, and it is he who is speaking with you is that one.” 38 The he said, “Lord, I believe,” and he prostrated himself before him as an act of reverence to him. 39 Jesus said, “For judgment I came into this world, that those who do not see may see, and those who see may become blind.” 40 Some of the Pharisees near him heard these things, and said to him, “We are not blind also, are we?” 41 Jesus said to them, “If you were blind, you would have no sin; but now that you say, ‘We see,’ your sin remains.
I Am the Good Shepherd
10 “Truly, truly, I say to you, the one who does not enter the sheepfold by the door but climbs in by another way, that man is a thief and a robber. 2 But the one who enters by the door is the shepherd of the sheep. 3 To this one the gatekeeper opens. The sheep hear his voice, and he calls his own sheep by name and leads them out. 4 When he has brought out all his own, he goes before them, and the sheep follow him, for they know his voice. 5 A stranger they will by no means follow, but they will flee from him, for they do not know the voice of strangers.” 6 This figure of speech Jesus used with them, but they did not understand what he was saying to them.
His Relationship with the Sheep
7 So Jesus again said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, I am the door of the sheep. 8 All those who came before me are thieves and robbers, but the sheep did not listen to them. 9 I am the door. If anyone enters by me, he will be saved and will go in and out and find pasture. 10 The thief does not come unless it is to steal and kill and destroy. I came that they may have life and have it abundantly. 11 I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his soul for the sheep. 12 He who is a hired hand and not a shepherd, who does not own the sheep, sees the wolf coming and leaves the sheep and flees, and the wolf snatches them and scatters them. 13 He flees because he is a hired hand and cares nothing for the sheep. 14 I am the good shepherd. I know my own and my own know me, 15 just as the Father knows me and I know the Father; and I lay down my soul for the sheep. 16 And I have other sheep that are not of this fold. I must bring them also, and they will listen to my voice. So there will be one flock, one shepherd. 17 For this reason the Father loves me, because I lay down my soul that I may take it up again. 18 No one takes it from me, but I lay it down of my own accord. I have authority to lay it down, and I have authority to take it up again. This charge I have received from my Father.”
19 There was again a division among the Jews because of these words. 20 Many of them said, “He has a demon, and is insane; why listen to him?” 21 Others said, “These are not the words of one who is oppressed by a demon. Can a demon open the eyes of the blind?”
I and the Father Are One
22 At that time the Feast of Dedication took place at Jerusalem. It was winter, 23 and Jesus was walking in the temple, in the colonnade of Solomon. 24 So the Jews gathered around him and said to him, “How long will you keep our souls in suspense? If you are the Christ, tell us plainly.” 25 Jesus answered them, “I told you, and you do not believe. The works that I do in my Father’s name bear witness about me, 26 but you do not believe because you are not among my sheep. 27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me. 28 I give them eternal life, and they will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand. 29 My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all, and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father’s hand. 30 I and the Father are one.”
The Hatred Against Jesus
31 The Jews picked up stones again to stone him. 32 Jesus answered them, “I have shown you many good works from the Father; for which of them are you going to stone me?” 33 The Jews answered him, “It is not for a good work that we are going to stone you but for blasphemy, because you, being a man, make yourself a god.” 34 Jesus answered them, “Is it not written in your Law, ‘I said, you are gods’? 35 If he called them gods to whom the word of God came, and Scripture cannot be broken, 36 do you say of him whom the Father consecrated and sent into the world, ‘You are blaspheming,’ because I said, ‘I am the Son of God’? 37 If I am not doing the works of my Father, then do not believe me; 38 but if I do them, even though you do not believe me, believe the works, that you may know and understand that the Father is in me and I am in the Father.” 39 Again they sought to arrest him, but he escaped from their hands.
The Meeting with Jesus
40 He went away again across the Jordan to the place where John had been baptizing at first, and there he remained. 41 And many came to him. And they said, “John did no sign, but everything that John said about this man was true.” 42 And many believed in him there.
The Death of Lazarus
11 Now a certain man was sick, Lazarus of Bethany, the village of Mary and her sister Martha. 2 It was Mary who anointed the Lord with perfumed oil and wiped his feet with her hair, whose brother Lazarus was sick. 3 So the sisters sent to him, saying, “Lord, he whom you love is ill.” 4 But when Jesus heard it he said, “This sickness does not lead to death. It is for the glory of God, so that the Son of God may be glorified through it.”
Summary Concerning Lazarus
5 Now Jesus loved Martha and her sister and Lazarus. 6 So, when he heard that Lazarus was sick, he stayed two days longer in the place where he was. 7 Then after this he said to the disciples, “Let us go to Judea again.” 8 The disciples said to him, “Rabbi, the Jews were just lately seeking to stone you, and are you going there again?” 9 Jesus answered, “Are there not twelve hours in the day? If anyone walks in the day, he does not stumble, because he sees the light of this world. 10 But if anyone walks in the night, he stumbles, because the light is not in him.” 11 After saying these things, he said to them, “Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep in death, but I go to awaken him.” 12 The disciples said to him, “Lord, if he has fallen asleep, he will get well.” 13 Now Jesus had spoken of his death, but they thought that he meant taking rest in sleep. 14 Then Jesus told them plainly, “Lazarus has died, 15 and for your sake I am glad that I was not there, so that you might believe. But let us go to him.” 16 So Thomas, called the Twin, said to his fellow disciples, “Let us also go, that we may die with him.”
I Am the Resurrection and the Life
17 Now when Jesus came, he found that Lazarus had already been in the memorial tomb four days. 18 Now Bethany was near Jerusalem, about two miles off, 19 and many of the Jews had come to Martha and Mary to console them concerning their brother. 20 Therefore, when Martha heard that Jesus was coming, she went and met him, but Mary remained seated in the house. 21 Martha therefore said to Jesus, “Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died. 22 But even now I know that whatever you ask from God, God will give you.” 23 Jesus said to her, “Your brother will rise again.” 24 Martha said to him, “I know that he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day.” 25 Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life. The one believing in me, though he dies, yet shall he live, 26 and everyone living and believing in me shall never die. Do you believe this?” 27 She said to him, “Yes, Lord; I have believed that you are the Christ, the Son of God, who is coming into the world.”
28 When she had said this, she went and called her sister Mary, saying in private, “The Teacher is here and is calling for you.” 29 And when she heard it, she rose quickly and went to him. 30 Now Jesus had not yet come into the village but was still in the place where Martha had met him. 31 When the Jews who were with her in the house, consoling her, saw Mary rise quickly and go out, they followed her, supposing that she was going to the memorial tomb to weep there. 32 Now when Mary came to where Jesus was and saw him, she fell at his feet, saying to him, “Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died.” 33 When Jesus saw her weeping, and the Jews who had come with her also weeping, he was deeply moved in his spirit and greatly troubled. 34 And he said, “Where have you laid him?” They said to him, “Lord, come and see.” 35 Jesus wept. 36 So the Jews said, “See how he loved him!” 37 But some of them said, “Was not this man that opened the eyes of the blind man able to prevent this one from dying?”
Jesus Raises Lazarus
38 Then Jesus, deeply moved again, came to the tomb. It was a cave, and a stone lay against it. 39 Jesus said, “Take away the stone.” Martha, the sister of the dead man, said to him, “Lord, by this time there will be an odor, for he has been dead four days.” 40 Jesus said to her, “Did I not tell you that if you believe you would see the glory of God?” 41 So they took away the stone. And Jesus lifted up his eyes and said, “Father, I thank you that you have heard me. 42 I knew that you always hear me, but I said this on account of the people standing around, that they might believe that you sent me.” 43 When he had said these things, he cried out with a loud voice, “Lazarus, come out.” 44 The man who had died came out, his hands and feet bound with linen strips, and his face wrapped with a cloth. Jesus said to them, “Unbind him, and let him go.”
The Plot to Kill Jesus
45 Many of the Jews therefore, who had come with Mary and had seen what he did, believed in him, 46 but some of them went to the Pharisees and told them what Jesus had done. 47 So the chief priests and the Pharisees gathered the council and said, “What are we to do? For this man performs many signs. 48 If we let him go on like this, everyone will believe in him, and the Romans will come and take away both our place and our nation.” 49 But one of them, Caiaphas, who was high priest that year, said to them, “You know nothing at all. 50 Nor do you understand that it is better for you that one man should die for the people, not that the whole nation should perish.” 51 He did not say this of his own accord but being high priest that year he prophesied that Jesus would die for the nation, 52 and not for the nation only, but also to gather into one the children of God who are scattered abroad. 53 So from that day on they made plans to put him to death.
54 Jesus therefore no longer walked openly among the Jews but went from there to the region near the wilderness, to a town called Ephraim, and there he stayed with the disciples.
Looking for Jesus
55 Now the Passover of the Jews was at hand, and many went up from the country to Jerusalem before the Passover to purify themselves. 56 They were looking for Jesus and saying to one another as they stood in the temple, “What do you think? That he will not come to the feast at all?” 57 Now the chief priests and the Pharisees had given orders that if anyone knew where he was, he should let them know, so that they might arrest him.
Mary Anoints Jesus with Oil at Bethany
12 Jesus, therefore, six days before the Passover, came to Bethany where Lazarus was, whom Jesus had raised from the dead. 2 So they made him a supper there, and Martha was serving; but Lazarus was one of those reclining at the table with him. 3 Mary, therefore, took a pound of expensive perfumed ointment made from pure nard, and anointed the feet of Jesus and wiped his feet with her hair. The house was filled with the fragrance of the ointment. 4 But Judas Iscariot, one of his disciples, who was about to betray him, said, 5 “Why was this perfume not sold for three hundred denarii and given to poor?” 6 Now he said this, not because he was concerned about the poor, but because he was a thief, and as he had the money box, he used to carry off what was put into it. 7 Therefore Jesus said, “Let her alone, so that she may keep it for the day of my burial. 8 For you always have the poor with you, but you do not always have me.”
The Decision to Kill Lazarus
9 The large crowd of the Jews then learned that he was there; and they came, not for Jesus’ sake only, but that they might also see Lazarus, whom he raised from the dead. 10 The chief priests now took counsel to kill Lazarus also 11 because on account of him many of the Jews were going away and believing in Jesus.
Jesus’ Triumphal Entry
12 On the next day the large crowd who had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, 13 took branches of palm trees and went out to meet him, crying, “Hosanna! Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord, even the King of Israel!” 14 And Jesus, finding a young donkey, sat on it; as it is written,
15 “Fear not, daughter of Zion;
behold, your king is coming,
seated on a donkey’s colt!”
16 These things his disciples did not understand at the first; but when Jesus was glorified, then they remembered that these things were written of him, and that they had done these things to him. 17 So the crowd, who were with him when he called Lazarus out of the tomb and raised him from the dead, continued bearing witness about him. 18 Because of this also the crowd went to meet him, for they had heard that he had performed this sign. 19 So the Pharisees said to one another, “You see that you are gaining nothing; look, the world has gone after him.”
Jesus Foretells His Death
20 Now there were some Greeks among those who were going up to worship at the feast; 21 these then came to Philip, who was from Bethsaida of Galilee, and began asking him, saying, “Sir, we wish to see Jesus.” 22 Philip came and told Andrew; Andrew and Philip came and told Jesus. 23 And Jesus answered them, “The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified. 24 Truly, truly, I say to you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains alone; but if it dies, it bears much fruit. 25 The one who loves his soul loses it, and the one who hates his soul in this world will safeguard it for life eternal. 26 If anyone serves me, he must follow me; and where I am, there will my servant be also; if anyone serves me, the Father will honor him.
Jesus and the Father
27 “Now my soul has become troubled; and what shall I say, ‘Father, save me out of this hour’? But for this purpose, I came to this hour. 28 Father, glorify your name.” Then a voice came from heaven: “I have glorified it, and I will glorify it again.” 29 So the crowd standing there heard it and said it was thunder; others were saying, “An angel has spoken to him.” 30 Jesus answered and said, “This voice has not come for my sake, but for your sakes. 31 Now judgment is upon this world; now the ruler of this world will be cast out. 32 And I, if I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to myself.” 33 But this he was saying to indicate what sort of death he was about to die. 34 So the crowd answered him, “We have heard from the Law that the Christ remains forever; and how can you say that the Son of Man must be lifted up? Who is this Son of Man?” 35 So Jesus said to them, “The light is among you for a little while longer. Walk while you have the light, lest darkness overtake you. The one walking in the darkness does not know where he is going. 36 While you have the light, believe in the light, so that you may become sons of light.”
The Jews’ Lack of Faith Fulfills Isaiah’s Prophecy
Jesus said these things, and he went away and was hidden from them. 37 But though He had performed so many signs before them, yet they were not believing in him. 38 So that the word of Isaiah prophet might be fulfilled, which he said:
“Lord, who has believed in the thing heard from us,
and to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?”
39 For this reason they could not believe, for Isaiah said again,
40 “He has blinded their eyes
and he hardened their heart,
so that they would not see with their eyes,
and understand with their heart, and turn,
and I might heal them.”
41 These things Isaiah said because he saw his glory, and he spoke about him. 42 Nevertheless many even of the rulers believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they were not confessing him, so that they might not be put out of the synagogue; 43 for they loved the glory of men more than the glory of God.
Jesus Came to Save the World
44 And Jesus cried out and said, `The one believing in me, does not believe in me, but in him who sent me. 45 and the one who sees me sees the one who sent me. 46 I have come as a light into the world, in order that everyone who believes in me will not remain in the darkness. 47 If anyone hears my sayings and does not keep them, I do not judge him; for I did not come to judge the world but to save the world. 48 He who rejects me and does not receive my sayings, has one who judges him; the word I spoke is what will judge him in the last day. 49 For I did not speak of my own initiative, but the Father himself who sent me has given me a commandment as to what to say and what to speak. 50 I know that his commandment is eternal life; therefore, the things I speak, I speak just as the Father has told me.”
Jesus Washes the Disciples’ Feet
13 Now before the Feast of the Passover, Jesus knowing that His hour had come that He would depart out of this world to the Father, having loved His own who were in the world, he loved them to the end. 2 During supper, the devil having already put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon, to betray him, 3 Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he had come forth from God and was going back to God, 4 rose from the evening meal and laid aside his outer garments; and taking a towel, he girded himself. 5 Then he poured water into a basin and began to wash the disciples’ feet and to wipe them with the towel with which he was girded. 6 So he came to Simon Peter. He said to Him, “Lord, do you wash my feet?” 7 Jesus answered him, “What I am doing you do not understand now, but you will understand hereafter.” 8 Peter said to him, “Never shall you wash my feet!” Jesus answered him, “If I do not wash you, you have no part with me.” 9 Simon Peter said to him, “Lord, not my feet only but also my hands and my head.” 10 Jesus said to him, “He who has bathed needs only to wash his feet, but is completely clean; and you are clean, but not all of you.” 11 (For he knew the one who would betray him; for this reason He said, “Not all of you are clean.”)
Follow the Pattern
12 So when He had washed their feet, and taken His garments and reclined at the table again, He said to them, “Do you know what I have done to you? 13 You call me Teacher and Lord, and you say well, for so I am. 14 If I then, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another’s feet. 15 For I have given you an example, that you also should do just as I have done to you. 16 Truly, truly, I say to you, a slave is not greater than his master, nor is one who is sent greater than the one who sent him. 17 If you know these things, blessed are you if you do them. 18 I do not speak of all of you. I know the ones I have chosen; but it is that the Scripture may be fulfilled, ‘He who eats My bread has lifted up his heel against Me.’ 19 From now on I am telling you before it comes to pass, so that when it does occur, you may believe that I am he. 20 Truly, truly, I say to you, he who receives whomever I send receives me; and he who receives me receives him who sent me.”
One of You Will Betray Me
21 When Jesus had said this, he became troubled in spirit, and testified and said, “Truly, truly, I say to you, that one of you will betray me.” 22 The disciples began to look at one another, being at a loss as to which one he was talking about. 23 There was reclining on Jesus’ bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved. 24 So Simon Peter gestured to him, and said to him, “Tell us who it is of whom he is talking about.” 25 He, leaning back thus on Jesus’ bosom, said to him, “Lord, who is it?” 26 Jesus then answered, “It is he to whom I shall dip the morsel and give it to him.” So when he had dipped the morsel, he took and gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot. 27 After the morsel, Satan then entered into him. Therefore, Jesus said to him, “What you do, do quickly.” 28 Now no one of those reclining at the table knew for what purpose He had said this to him. 29 For some thought that, because Judas had the money box, Jesus was telling him, “Buy what we need for the festival,” or that he should give something to the poor. 30 So after receiving the morsel he went out immediately; and it was night.
A New Commandment
31 Therefore when he had gone out, Jesus said, “Now is the Son of Man glorified, and God is glorified in him; 32 if God is glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself, and will glorify him immediately. 33 Little children, yet a little while I am with you. You will seek me, and just as I said to the Jews, so now I also say to you, ‘Where I am going you cannot come.’ 34 A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, even as I have loved you, that you also love one another. 35 By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another.”
Jesus Foretells Peter’s Denial
36 Simon Peter said to him, “Lord, where are you going?” Jesus answered him, “Where I am going you cannot follow me now, but you will follow afterward.” 37 Peter said to him, “Lord, why can I not follow you now? I will lay down my life for you.” 38 Jesus answered, “Will you lay down your life for me? Truly, truly, I say to you, the rooster will not crow till you have denied me three times.
Jesus Is the Only Way to the Father
14 “Do not let your heart be troubled; believe in God, believe also in me. 2 In my Father’s house are many dwelling places; but if not, I would have told you; for I go to prepare a place for you. 3 And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you to myself, so that where I am, you may be also. 4 And you know the way where I am going.” 5 Thomas said to him, “Lord, we do not know where you are going; how are we able to know the way?” 6 Jesus said to him, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father except through me. 7 If you had known me, you would have known my Father also; from now on you know him and have seen him.”
Philip and Jesus
8 Philip said to him, “Lord, show us the Father, and it is enough for us.” 9 Jesus said to him, “Have I been so long with you, and yet you have not come to know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father; how can you say, ‘Show us the Father’? 10 Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in me? The words that I say to you I do not speak on my own authority, but the Father who dwells in me does his works. 11 Believe in me that I am in the Father and the Father is in me; otherwise believe on account of the works themselves.
Jesus’ Disciples Will Do Greater Things Than He
12 Truly, truly, I say to you, the one believing in me, the works that I do, he will do also; and greater works than these he will do, because I go to the Father. 13 Whatever you ask in my name, this I will do, so that the Father may be glorified in the Son. 14 If you ask me anything in my name, I will do it.
Jesus Promises the Holy Spirit
15 “If you love me, you will keep my commandments. 16 And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Helper, that he may be with you forever; 17 the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it does not see him or know him, but you know him because he remains with you and will be in you.
Jesus and the Father are One
18 “I will not leave you as orphans; I will come to you. 19 Yet a little while and the world will see me no more, but you will see me; because I live, you will live also. 20 In that day you will know that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you. 21 The one who has my commandments and keeps them, that one is the one who loves me; and the one who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him and will reveal myself to him.” 22 Judas (not Iscariot) said to him, “Lord, what has happened that you will reveal yourself to us, and not to the world?” 23 Jesus answered and said to him, “If anyone loves me, he will keep my word; and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and make our abode with him. 24 The one who does not love me does not keep my words; and the word that you hear is not mine, but the Father’s who sent me.
Jesus Reminds Them of His Departure and Return
25 “These things I have spoken to you while remaining with you. 26 But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, that one will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you. 27 Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you. Not as the world gives do I give to you. Let not your hearts be troubled, neither let it be fearful. 28 You have heard that I said to you, ‘I am going away, and I am coming to you.’ If you loved me, you would have rejoiced that I am going to the Father, because the Father is greater than I. 29 And now I have told you before it happens, so that when it happens, you may believe. 30 I will not speak with you much more, for the ruler of the world is coming, and he has nothing in me; 31 But so that the world may know that I love the Father, and just as the Father has commanded me, so I do. Get up, let us go from here.
Illustration of the True Vine
15 “I am the true vine, and my Father is the vinedresser. 2 Every branch in me that does not bear fruit he takes away; and every branch that does bear fruit he prunes, that it may bear more fruit. 3 Already you are clean because of the word that I have spoken to you. 4 Remain in me, and I in you. Just as the branch is not able to bear fruit from itself unless it remains in the vine, so neither can you, unless you remain in me. 5 “I am the vine, you are the branches; the one who remains in me and I in him, this one bears much fruit, for apart from me you can do nothing. 6 If anyone does not abide in me he is thrown away like a branch and withers; and the branches are gathered, thrown into the fire, and they are burned. 7 If you remain in me and my words remain in you, ask whatever you wish and it will be done for you. 8 My Father is glorified by this: that you bear much fruit, and prove to be my disciples. 9 “Just as the Father has loved me, I also have loved you; remain in my love. 10 If you keep my commandments, you will remain in my love, just as I have kept my Father’s commandments and remain in his love. 11 These things I have spoken to you so that my joy may be in you, and that your joy may be made full.
Command to Show Christlike Love
12 “This is my commandment, that you love one another as I have loved you. 13 Greater love has no one than this, that one lay down his life for his friends. 14 You are my friends if you do what I command you. 15 No longer do I call you slaves, for the slave does not know what his master is doing; but I have called you friends, for all things that I have heard from my Father I have made known to you. 16 You did not choose me, but I chose you and appointed you that you should go and bear fruit and that your fruit should abide, so that whatever you ask the Father in my name, he may give it to you. 17 These things I command you, so that you will love one another.
The World Hates Jesus’ Disciples
18 “If the world hates you, know that it has hated me before it hated you. 19 If you were of the world, the world would love you as its own; but because you are not of the world, but I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates you. 20 Remember the word that I said to you: ‘A slave is not greater than his master.’ If they persecuted me, they will also persecute you. If they kept my word, they will keep yours also. 21 But all these things they will do to you on account of my name, because they do not know the one who sent me. 22 If I had not come and spoken to them, they would not have sin, but now they have no excuse for their sin. 23 The one who hates me hates my Father also. 24 If I had not done among them the works that no one else did, they would not have sin; but now they have both seen and hated both me and my Father. 25 But that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their Law, ‘They hated me without a cause.’
26 “But when the Helper comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, that one will bear witness about me. 27 And you also will bear witness, because you have been with me from the beginning.
Jesus’ Disciples May Face Death
16 “These things I have spoken to you so that you may not be stumbled. 2 They will expel you from the synagogue. Indeed, the hour is coming when whoever kills you will think he is offering service to God. 3 And they will do these things because they have not known the Father or me. 4 But these things I have spoken to you, so that when their hour comes, you may remember that I told you of them. These things I did not say to you at the beginning, because I was with you.
The Work of the Holy Spirit
5 But now I am going to him who sent me, and none of you asks me, ‘Where are you going?’ 6 But because I have said these things to you, sorrow has filled your heart. 7 Nevertheless, I tell you the truth: it is to your advantage that I go away; for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you. 8 And when that one arrives, he will convict the world concerning sin and righteousness and judgment; 9 concerning sin, because they do not believe in me; 10 concerning righteousness, because I go to the Father, and you will see me no longer; 11 concerning judgment, because the ruler of this world has been judged.
The Spirit Will Guide the Disciples
12 “I still have many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now. 13 But when that one, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all the truth; for he will not speak from himself, but whatever he hears, he will speak; and he will declare to you the things that are to come. 14 That one will glorify me, for he will take what is mine and declare it to you. 15 All the things that the Father has are mine; therefore I said that he takes what is mine and will declare it to you.
Your Sorrow Will Turn into Joy
16 “A little while, and you will no longer see me; and again a little while, and you will see me.” 17 Some of his disciples then said to one another, “What is this thing he is telling us, ‘A little while, and you will not see me; and again a little while, and you will see me’; and, ‘because I go to the Father’?” 18 So they were saying, “What is this that he says, ‘A little while’? We do not know what he is talking about.” 19 Jesus knew that they wished to question him, and he said to them, “Are you inquiring together about this, that I said, ‘A little while, and you will not see me, and again a little while, and you will see me’? 20 Truly, truly, I say to you, that you will weep and lament, but the world will rejoice; you will be sorrowful, but your sorrow will turn into joy. 21 When a woman is giving birth, she has grief because her hour has come; but when she has given birth to the child, she remembers the tribulation no more because of the joy that a child has been born into the world. 22 So also you have sorrow now; but I will see you again, and your hearts will rejoice, and no one will take your joy away from you. 23 In that day you will ask me no question at all. Truly, truly, I say to you, if you ask of the Father for anything in my name, he will give it to you. 24 Until now you have asked for nothing in my name; ask and you will receive, so that your joy may be made full.
Jesus’ Conquest Over the World
25 “These things I have spoken to you in figures of speech. The hour is coming when I will no longer speak to you in figures of speech but will tell you plainly of the Father. 26 In that day you will ask in my name, and I do not say to you that I will ask the Father on your behalf; 27 for the Father himself loves you, because you have loved me and have believed that I came from the Father. 28 I came from the Father and have come into the world; again, I am leaving the world and am going to the Father.”
29 His disciples said, “Behold, now you are speaking plainly and not saying a proverb. 30 Now we know that you know all things and do not need anyone to question you; this is why we believe that you came from God.” 31 Jesus answered them, “Do you now believe? 32 Behold, the hour is coming, indeed it has come, when you will be scattered, each to his own home, and will leave me alone; and yet I am not alone, for the Father is with me. 33 I have said these things to you so that in me you may have peace. In the world you have affliction but have courage; I have overcome the world.”
Jesus’ Last prayer the Apostles
17 Jesus spoke these things; and lifting up his eyes to heaven, He said, “Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son, that the Son may glorify you, 2 just as you have given him authority over all flesh, so that he may give eternal life to all those whom you have given to him. 3 This is eternal life, that they may know you, the only true God, and the one whom you sent, Jesus Christ. 4 I glorified you on earth, having accomplished the work that you gave me to do. 5 And now, Father, glorify me together with yourself, with the glory which I had with you before the world was.
6 “I have manifested your name to the men whom you gave me out of the world; they were yours and you gave them to me, and they have kept your word. 7 Now they know that everything that you have given me is from you; 8 for the words which you gave me I have given to them; and they received them and truly understood that I came forth from you, and they believed that you sent me. 9 I am asking on behalf of them. I am not asking on behalf of the world, but on behalf of those whom you have given me, because they are yours; 10 and all things that are mine are yours, and yours are mine; and I have been glorified in them.
Jesus Asks the Father to Protect the Disciples
11 And I am no longer in the world, but they are in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father keep them in your name, which you have given me, that they may be one, even as we are. 12 While I was with them, I kept them in your name, which you have given me; and I guarded them and not one of them perished but the son of destruction, so that the Scripture would be fulfilled. 13 But now I am coming to you; and these things I speak in the world so that they may have my joy made full in themselves. 14 I have given them your word; and the world has hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world.
Christians No Part of the World
15 I do not ask that you take them out of the world, but that you keep them from the wicked one. 16 They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. 17 Sanctify them in the truth; your word is truth. 18 As you sent me into the world, so I have sent them into the world. 19 And for their sakes I sanctify myself, that they themselves also may be sanctified in truth.
Jesus Prays for the Protection of Christians
20 “I do not ask for these only, but also for those who will believe in me through their word; 21 that they may all be one, just as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, that they also may be in us, so that the world may believe that you have sent me. 22 The glory that you have given me I have given to them, that they may be one even as we are one, 23 I in them and you in me, that they may be perfected in unity, so that the world may know that you sent me, and loved them, even as you have loved me. 24 Father, I desire that they also, whom you have given me, may be with me where I am, so that they may see my glory that you have given me because you loved me before the foundation of the world. 25 O righteous Father, even though the world does not know you, I know you, and these know that you sent me. 26 I made known to them your name, and will make it known, so that the love with which you have loved me may be in them, and I in them.”
Judas Betrays Jesus
18 When Jesus had spoken these words, he went out with his disciples across the Kidron Valley, where there was a garden, which he and his disciples entered. 2 Now Judas, who was betraying him, also knew the place, for Jesus often met there with his disciples. 3 So Judas brought the detachment of soldiers and officers of the chief priests and of the Pharisees and came there with torches and lamps and weapons. 4 So Jesus, knowing all the things that were coming upon him, went forth and said to them, “Whom do you seek?” 5 They answered him, “Jesus of Nazareth.” Jesus said to them, “I am he.” And Judas also, who was betraying him, was standing with them.
6 So when he said to them, “I am he,” they drew back and fell to the ground. 7 So he asked them again, “Whom do you seek?” And they said, “Jesus of Nazareth.” 8 Jesus answered, “I told you that I am he. So, if you seek me, let these men go.” 9 This was to fulfill the word that he had spoken: “Of those whom you gave me I have lost not one.”
Peter Uses a Sword
10 Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the high priest’s slave and cut off his right ear; (now the name of the slave was Malchus.) 11 So Jesus said to Peter, “Put the sword into the sheath; the cup which the Father has given me, shall I not drink it?”
Jesus Taken to Annas
12 So the soldiers and the military commander and the officers of the Jews seized Jesus and bound him, 13 and led him to Annas first; for he was father-in-law of Caiaphas, who was high priest that year. 14 Now Caiaphas was the one who had advised the Jews that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.
Peter’s First Denial of Jesus
15 Simon Peter was following Jesus, and so was another disciple. Now that disciple was known to the high priest and entered with Jesus into the court of the high priest, 16 but Peter was standing at the door outside. So the other disciple, who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to the doorkeeper, and brought Peter in. 17 Then the slave-girl who kept the door said to Peter, “You are not also one of this man’s disciples, are you?” He said, “I am not.” 18 Now the slaves and the officers were standing there, having made a charcoal fire, for it was cold and they were warming themselves; and Peter was also with them, standing and warming himself.
The High Priest Questions Jesus
19 The high priest then questioned Jesus about his disciples and his teaching. 20 Jesus answered him, “I have spoken openly to the world; I have always taught in the synagogue and in the temple, where all Jews come together; I have said nothing in secret. 21 Why do you ask me? Ask those who have heard me what I said to them; they know what I said.” 22 When he had said this, one of the officers standing nearby struck Jesus, saying, “Is that the way you answer the chief priest?” 23 Jesus answered him, “If I have spoken wrongly, testify of the wrong; but if rightly, why do you strike me?” 24 So Annas then sent him bound to Caiaphas the chief priest.
Peter’s Second and Third Denials of Jesus
25 Now Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. So they said to him, “You are not also one of His disciples, are you?” He denied it, and said, “I am not.” 26 One of the slaves of the chief priest, a relative of the man whose ear Peter had cut off, asked, “Did I not see you in the garden with him?” 27 Peter then denied it again, and immediately a rooster crowed.
Jesus Before Pilate
28 Then they led Jesus from Caiaphas into the Praetorium, and it was early; and they themselves did not enter into the Praetorium so that they would not be defiled but might eat the Passover. 29 So Pilate went outside to them and said, “What accusation do you bring against this man?” 30 They answered and said to him, “If this man were not an evildoer, we would not have delivered him to you.” 31 So Pilate said to them, “Take him yourselves and judge him by your own law.” The Jews said to him, “It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death,” 32 in order that the word of Jesus would be fulfilled that he had spoken, signifying by what sort of death he was going to die.
My Kingdom Is Not of This World
33 Therefore Pilate entered again into the Praetorium, and summoned Jesus and said to Him, “Are You the King of the Jews?” 34 Jesus answered: “Are you asking this of your own originality, or did others tell you about me?” 35 Pilate answered, “Am I a Jew, am I? Your own nation and the chief priests have delivered you over to me; what have you done?” 36 Jesus answered, “my kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, then my servants would be fighting so that I would not be handed over to the Jews; but as it is, my kingdom is not of this world.” 37 Then Pilate said to him, “So you are a king?” Jesus answered, “You say that I am a king. For this purpose, I was born and for this purpose I have come into the world, to testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears my voice.” 38 Pilate said to him, “What is truth?”
And when he had said this, he went out again to the Jews and said to them, “I find no guilt in him. 39 But you have a custom that I should release one man for you at the Passover; so do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews?” 40 hey cried out again, “Not this man, but Barabbas!” Now Barabbas was a robber.
Jesus Scourged and Mocked
19 Pilate then took Jesus and scourged him. 2 And the soldiers twisted together a crown of thorns and put it on his head and arrayed him in a purple robe; 3 and they were coming up to him and saying, “Hail, king of the Jews!” and were giving him slaps in the face. 4 Pilate went out again and said to them, “Behold, I am bringing him out to you that you may know that I find no guilt in him.” 5 Jesus then came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, “Behold, the Man!” 6 So when the chief priests and the officers saw him, they cried out saying, “Crucify, crucify!” Pilate said to them, “Take him yourselves and crucify him, for I find no guilt in him.” 7 The Jews answered him, “We have a law, and by that law he ought to die because he made himself out to be the Son of God.”
Pilate Questions Jesus Again
8 When Pilate heard this statement, he was even more afraid; 9 and he entered into the Praetorium again and *said to Jesus, “Where are You from?” But Jesus gave him no answer. 10 So Pilate said to him, “You will not speak to me? Do you not know that I have authority to release you and authority to crucify you?” 11 Jesus answered him, “You would have no authority over me at all unless it had been given you from above; for this reason, he who delivered me to you has the greater sin.”
Pilate and the Jews Final Encounter
12 From this Pilate was seeking to release him, but the Jews shouted, saying, “If you release this man, you are not a friend of Caesar; everyone who makes himself out to be a king opposes Caesar.” 13 Therefore when Pilate heard these words, he brought Jesus out, and sat down on the judgment seat at a place called The Pavement, but in Hebrew, Gabbatha. 14 Now it was the day of preparation of the Passover; it was about the sixth hour. And he said to the Jews, “Behold your king!” 15 They cried out, “Away with him, away with him, crucify him!” Pilate said to them, “Shall I crucify your King?” The chief priests answered, “We have no king but Caesar.” 16 So he delivered him over to them to be crucified.
So they took Jesus, 17 and he went out, bearing the cross for himself, unto the place called The place of a skull, which is called in Hebrew Golgotha. 18 There they crucified him, and with him two others, one on either side, and Jesus in the middle. 19 And Pilate also wrote a notice and put it on the cross, and it was written: “Jesus the Nazarene, the king of the Jews.” 20 Therefore many of the Jews read this inscription, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city; and it was written in Hebrew, Latin and in Greek. 21 So the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate, “Do not write, ‘The King of the Jews,’ but rather, ‘This man said, I am King of the Jews.’” 22 Pilate answered, “What I have written I have written.”
Jesus’ Provision for His Mother
23 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his outer garments and made four parts, a part to every soldier and also the inner garment; now the inner garment was without a seam, being woven from top to bottom. 24 so they said to one another, “Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it to see whose it shall be.” This was to fulfill the Scripture which says,
“They divided my garments among them,
and for my clothing they cast lots.”
So the soldiers did these things.
25 But standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother and his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. 26 When Jesus saw his mother, and the disciple whom he loved standing nearby, he said to his mother, “Woman, behold, your son!” 27 Then he said to the disciple, “Behold, your mother!” And from that hour the disciple took her into his own home.
The Death of Jesus
28 After this, Jesus, knowing that all things was now finished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, said, “I am thirsty.” 29 A jar full of sour wine was standing there, so they put a sponge full of the sour wine on a branch of hyssop and brought it to his mouth. 30 When Jesus had received the sour wine, he said, “It is finished!” And he bowed his head and gave up his spirit.
Jesus’ Side Is Pierced
31 Then the Jews, because it was the day of preparation, so that the bodies would not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath day was a great one), the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken and that they might be taken away. 32 So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first man and of the other who was crucified with him; 33 but when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. 34 But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and at once there came out blood and water. 35 And the one who has seen it has given this witness, and his witness is true, and he knows that what he says is true, so that you also may believe. 36 For these things came to pass that the Scripture might be fulfilled: “Not one of his bones will be broken.” 37 And again another Scripture says, “They will look on him whom they pierced.”
Jesus Is Buried
38 After these things Joseph of Arimathea, who was a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, asked Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus, and Pilate gave him permission. So he came and took away his body. 39 Nicodemus, who had first come to him by night, also came, bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred pounds. 40 So they took the body of Jesus and bound it in linen cloths with the spices, as is the burial custom of the Jews. 41 Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a new tomb in which no one had yet been laid. 42 So because it was the day of Preparation of the Jews and the tomb was nearby, they laid Jesus there.
20 Now on the first day of the week Mary Magdalene came to the tomb early, while it was still dark, and saw that the stone had been taken away from the tomb. 2 So she ran and came to Simon Peter and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved and said to them, “They have taken away the Lord from the tomb and we do not know where they have put him!”
The Mission of Two Disciples
3 So Peter and the other disciple went forth, and they were going to the tomb. 4 And the two were running together; and the other disciple ran ahead, faster than Peter, and came to the tomb first. 5 And stooping to look in, he saw the linen cloths lying there, but he did not go in. 6 Then Simon Peter also came following him, and he went into the tomb and saw the linen cloths lying there, 7 and the facecloth which had been on his head, not lying with the linen cloths, but rolled up in a place by itself. 8 Then the other disciple who had reached the tomb first also went in, and he saw and believed. 9 For as yet they did not understand the Scripture, that he must rise again from the dead. 10 So the disciples went away again to their own homes.
Jesus Appears to Mary Magdalene
11 But Mary was standing outside the tomb weeping; and as she wept, she stooped to look into the tomb; 12 and she saw two angels in white sitting, one at the head and one at the feet, where the body of Jesus had been lying. 13 And they said to her, “Woman, why are you weeping?” She said to them, “Because they have taken away my Lord, and I do not know where they have laid him.” 14 Having said this, she turned around and saw Jesus standing there, and did not know that it was Jesus. 15 Jesus said to her, “Woman, why are you weeping? Whom are you seeking?” Supposing him to be the gardener, she said to him, “Sir, if you have carried him away, tell me where you have laid him, and I will take him away.” 16 Jesus said to her, “Mary!” She turned and said to him in Hebrew, “Rabboni!” (which means, Teacher). 17 Jesus said to her, “Stop clinging to me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father; but go to my brothers and say to them, ‘I ascend to my Father and your Father, and my God and your God.’” 18 Mary Magdalene came and announced to the disciples, “I have seen the Lord,” and he had said these things to her.
Jesus Appears to the Disciples
19 Now when it was evening on that day, the first day of the week, and when the doors were shut where the disciples were, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in their midst and said to them, “Peace be with you.” 20 And when he had said this, he showed his hands and his side to them. Then the disciples rejoiced when they saw the Lord. 21 So Jesus said to them again, “Peace to you. As the Father has sent me, I also send you.” 22 And when he had said this, he breathed on them and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit. 23 If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven them; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained.”
Jesus and Thomas
24 Now Thomas, one of the twelve, who was called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came. 25 So the other disciples said to him, “We have seen the Lord!” But he said to them, “Unless I see in his hands the mark of the nails, and put my finger into the mark of the nails, and put my hand into his side, I will never believe.”
26 After eight days his disciples were again inside, and Thomas with them. Jesus came, the doors having been shut, and stood in their midst and said, “Peace be with you.” 27 Then He said to Thomas, “Reach here with your finger, and see my hands; and reach here your hand and put it into my side; and do not be unbelieving, but believing.” 28 Thomas answered and said to him, “My Lord and my God!” 29 Jesus said to him, “Because you have seen me, have you believed? Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.”
The Purpose of This Book
30 Now Jesus also performed many other signs in the presence of the disciples, which are not recorded in this book, 31 but these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.
Jesus Appears to Seven Disciples
21 After this Jesus manifested himself again to the disciples at the Sea of Tiberias, and he manifested himself in this way. 2 Simon Peter, and Thomas called Didymus, and Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, and two others of his disciples were together. 3 Simon Peter said to them, “I am going fishing.” They said to him, “We will go with you.” They went out and got into the boat; and that night they caught nothing.
Jesus Performs One Final Miracle
4 But when the day was now breaking, Jesus stood on the beach; yet the disciples did not know that it was Jesus. 5 So Jesus said to them, “Children, you do not have any fish to eat, do you? They answered him, “No.” 6 He said to them: “Cast the net on the right side of the boat and you will find some.” So they cast it, but they were not able to haul it in because of the large number of fish. 7 Therefore the disciple, the one Jesus loved, said to Peter, “It is the Lord!” When Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he girded about himself his outer garment, for he was naked, and threw himself into the sea. 8 But the other disciples came in the little boat, for they were not far from the land, but about one hundred yards away, dragging the net full of fish.
9 So when they got out on the land, they saw a charcoal fire laid there, and a fish lying on it, and bread. 10 Jesus said to them, “Bring some of the fish that you have just caught.” 11 So Simon Peter went aboard and hauled the net ashore, full of large fish, a hundred and fifty-three; and although there were so many, the net was not torn. 12 Jesus said to them, “Come and have breakfast.” None of the disciples dared to ask him, “Who are You?” knowing that it was the Lord. 13 Jesus came and took the bread and gave it to them, and the fish likewise. 14 This is now the third time that Jesus was manifested to the disciples, after he was raised from the dead.
Peter Affirms His Love for Jesus
15 So when they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, “Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?” He said to him, “Yes, Lord; you know I have affection for you.” He said to him, “Feed my lambs.” 16 He said to him a second time, “Simon, son of John, do you love me?” He said to him, “Yes, Lord; you know that I have affection for you.” He said to him, “Tend my sheep.” 17 He said to him the third time, “Simon, son of John, do you love me?” Peter was grieved because he said to him the third time, “Do you love me?” and he said to him, “Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you.” Jesus said to him, “Feed my sheep. 18 Truly, truly, I say to you, when you were young, you used to dress yourself and walk wherever you wanted, but when you are old, you will stretch out your hands, and another will dress you and carry you where you do not want to go.” 19 Now this he said, signifying by what kind of death he would glorify God. And when he had spoken this, he said to him, “Follow Me!”
Jesus and the Beloved Apostle
20 Peter turned around and saw the disciple whom Jesus loved following them, the one who also had leaned back on his chest at the supper and said, “Lord, who is the one betraying you?” 21 So Peter seeing this one said to Jesus, “Lord, and what about this man?” 22 Jesus said to him, “If it is my will that he remain until I come, what is that to you? You follow me!” 23 So this saying went out to the brothers that that disciple would not die; but Jesus did not say to him that he would not die, but “If I want him to remain until I come, what is that to you?”
24 This is the disciple who is bearing witness about these things, and who has written these things, and we know that his testimony is true.
25 And there are also many other things which Jesus did, which if they were written one by one, I suppose that even the world itself would not contain the books that would be written.
 John is not saying that “the Word” was God the Father.
 That is, humankind
 Believe, faith, Trust in: (Gr. pisteuo) If pisteuo is followed by the Greek preposition eis, (“into, in, among,” accusative case), it is generally rendered “trusting in” or “trust in.” (John 3:16, 36; 12:36; 14:1) The grammatical construction of the Greek verb pisteuo “believe” followed by the Greek preposition eis “into” in the accusative gives us the sense of having faith into Jesus, putting faith in, trusting in Jesus.–Matt. 21:25, 32; 27:42; John 1:7, 12; 2:23–24; 3:15–16, 36; 6:47; 11:25; 12:36; 14:1; 20:31; Acts 16:31; Rom. 4:3.
 Greek to his own things, possessions, domain, or to his own people
 People is implied in Greek
 Literally “bloods.” This is the only place in the NT that you will find the plural form of blood. It possible that it could refer either to hereditary (that is, blood from one’s father and mother) or to the OT blood sacrifice. Neither is necessary for birth into the family of God.
 Jn 1:18: WH NU “only-begotten god”, P66 א* B C* L syrhmg,p; [V1] “the only-begotten God,” P75א133copbo; [V2] “the only-begotten Son.” AC3(Ws)QYf1,13 MajVgSyrc
 Or at the Father’s side
 (Isaiah 40:3, ASV) . . . The voice of one that crieth, Prepare ye in the wilderness the way of Jehovah; make level in the desert a highway for our God.
 The TR WH NU has ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ “the Son of God,” which is supported by P66 P75 P120 א2 A B C W Δ Θ Ψ 083. There is another reading also with early and diverse manuscript support ο εκλεκτος του θεου “the chosen one of God,” which is supported by P5vid P106vid א* ite syrc,s.
 That is, about 4 p.m.
 Literally him
 Christ: (Gr. Christos) The title of Jesus (ho Christos, “the Christ”), which is equivalent to the Hebrew word “Messiah” (Mashiach) or “Anointed One.” It literally means “one who has been anointed.”–Matt. 1:16; 2:4; 27:17; John 1:41.
 Lit What to me and to you, which is a Hebrew idiom; a question indicating objection. It is found in the Hebrew Scriptures, namely, in Josh. 22:24; Judg. 11:12; 2Sa 16:10; 19:22; 1 Ki 17:18; 2 Ki 3:13; 2 Ch. 35:21; Hos. 14:8. Jesus meant no disrespect. In the Greek New Testament, it is found in in Matt. 8:29; Mk 1:24; 5:7; Lu 4:34; 8:28; John 2:4.
 The Greek does not denote any disrespect.
 A measure (metretas) was about 10 gallons. Each stone jar holding 20 to 30 gallons.
 Lit not many
 Or “a house of merchants” or “house of merchandise”
 Could also be rendered “born from above.” Born Again, Born of God, Born of the Spirit, Regeneration (Rebirth): (Gr. gennaō anōthen; gennaō theos; gennaō pneuma; palingenesia) This regeneration is the Holy Spirit working in his life, giving him a new nature, who repents and accepts Christ, placing him on the path to salvation. By taking in this knowledge of God’s Word, we will be altering our way of thinking, which will affect our emotions and behavior, as well as our lives now and for eternity. This Word will influence our minds, making corrections in the way we think. If we are to have the Holy Spirit controlling our lives, we must ‘renew our mind’ (Rom. 12:2) “which is being renewed in knowledge” (Col. 3:10) of God and his will and purposes. (Matt 7:21-23; See Pro 2:1-6) All of this boils down to each individual Christian digging into the Scriptures in a meditative way, so he can ‘discover the knowledge of God, receiving wisdom; from God’s mouth, as well as knowledge and understanding.’ (Pro. 2:5-6) As he acquires the mind that is inundated with the Word of God, he must also “be doers of the Word.”–John 3:3; 6-7; 2 Corinthians 5:17; Titus 3:5; James 1:22-25.
 See 3:3
 “The Son of man” is the original reading based on the abundance of weighty evidence P66 P75 א B L T Ws 083 086 cop Diatessaron. The shorter reading was also the one known to the church fathers as well, such as Origen, Didymus, and Jerome. However, other scribes expanded the reading to “the Son of Man, who is in heaven,” which is found in the far inferior (A* omit ων) Θ Ψ 050 f1, Maj. The longer reading was also known by some church fathers, such as Hippolytus, Origen, Dionysius, Hesychius, Hilary, Lucifer, Jerome, and Augustine. The longer reading was also translated into the Old Latin and Syriac versions. While the longer reading has some evidence, it cannot even come close to overcoming the weighty manuscript evidence of the short reading (P66 P75 א B L T Ws).
 Bridegroom: (Gr. numphios) Jesus Christ is presented as the bridegroom for the bride, namely, the Christian congregation, which is his body.–Mark 2:19-20; John 3:29; 2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 1:22-23; Rev. 19:7; 21:2, 9.
 Literally “all things”
 That is, about noon
 Bethsaida has the best documentary evidence and is the original wording (𝔓66 𝔓66 𝔓75 B W), the name was then changed to Bethzatha meaning “house of mercy” in א (L ite, 33 Eusebius), which is fair manuscript support as well as being the most difficult reading; then there is Bethesda, which also means “house of mercy” in (A C Θ 078 f,13 Maj), which has good documentary support.
 The earliest and best witnesses (MSS) 𝔓66 𝔓75 א A* B C* L T D Wsupp 33 itd, I, Q cop Vg Syc do not have John 5:3b-4 in their exemplar; Other later witnesses (MSS) A2 C3 L Θ Ψ 078vid Maj it did have: “waiting for the moving of the water. 4 For an angel of the Lord would come down at certain seasons into the pool and stirred the water. Whoever went in first after the stirring of the water was healed of whatever disease he had.” This interpolation was added by later scribes to explain the sick man’s answer in verses 7 where he describes ‘the water being stirred up.’
 Bread of Life: (Gr. artos zōēs) It was for “the life of the world,” of redeemable humankind that Jesus gave his flesh. And anyone of the world of humankind who eats symbolically of that “bread of life” (spiritual nourishment), by trusting in the redeeming power of Jesus’ sacrifice, may “enter through the narrow gate. For the gate is small and the way is narrow that leads to life, and there are few who find it,” (Matt 7:13-14) i.e., the path to eternal life.–John 6:35, 48.
 (Isaiah 54:13, ASV) . . .And all thy children shall be taught of Jehovah. . .
 Meaning “slanderer”
 John 7:53–8:11 is included in NA28 and UBS5 enclosed within double square brackets. WH has it after John’s gospel. It is included in TR as 7:53–8:11. The following witnesses lack 7:53–8:11, P39vid P66 P75 א Avid, B, CVid L N T W Δ Θ Ψ 0141 33 ita,f syrc,s,p copsa,bo,ach2 geo Diatessaron Origen Chrysostom Cyril Tertullian Cyprian MSSaccording to Augustine
The following witnesses included 7:53–8:11, D (F) G H K M U Γ itaur,c,d,e syrh,pal copbomss Maj MSSaccording to Didymus; E 8:2–11 with asterisks; Λ 8:3–11 with asterisks; f1 after John 21:25; f13 after Luke 21:38; 1333c 8:3–11 after Luke 24:53; 225 after John 7:36.
We have added 7:53–8:11 into the footnote, not the main text because it is a spurious passage. Single brackets [ ], are used to indicates that the translator(s) had difficulty in deciding which variant to place in the text. Double brackets [[ ]], are used to indicate a spurious passage that has been added to the text. However, because of its early history, it has been included within double brackets.
[[53 So they went each one to his own house,
8 but Jesus went to the Mount of Olives. 2 Early in the morning he came again to the temple. All the people came to him, and he sat down and taught them. 3 Not the scribes and the Pharisees brought a woman who had been caught in adultery, and standing her in their midst 4 they said to him, “Teacher, this woman has been caught in the act of committing adultery. 5 Now in the Law Moses commanded us to stone such women. So what do you say?” 6 This they were saying to test him, that they might have some charge to bring against him. But Jesus bent down and wrote with his finger on the ground. 7 And as they continued to asking him, he stood up and said to them, “Let the one who is without sin among you be the first to throw a stone at her.” 8 And bending over again he kept on writing on the ground. 9 But when they heard it, they went away one by one, beginning with the older men, and he was left alone, and the woman that was in their midst. 10 Jesus stood up and said to her, “Woman, where are they? Did no one condemned you?” 11 She said, “No one, Lord.” And Jesus said, “Neither do I condemn you; go, and from now on sin no more.”]]
 This combination of two Greek negative particles οὐ µή (ou mē) and the aorist subjunctive with reference to a future event is the strongest negation possible in Greek, meaning absolutely not at all, in no way, by no means in any way to something in the future, this being known as the Subjunctive of Emphatic Negation.
 Sexual Immorality: (Heb. zanah; Gr. porneia) A general term for immoral sexual acts of any kind: such as adultery, prostitution, sexual relations between people not married to each other, homosexuality, and bestiality.–Num. 25:1; Deut. 22:21; Matt. 5:32; 1 Cor. 5:1.
 The Greek (ἐγώ εἰμι egō eimi) is “I am.” Another possibility, “Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham came to be, I have been in existence.” The Greek to English grammatically correct rendering should be “… before Abraham came to be I have been in existence.” K. L. McKay, A New Syntax of the Verb in New Testament Greek (New York: Peter Lang, 1994), p. 42. Having [before Abraham / came to be / I am] as far as English word order is fine, but we are violating verb compatibility, mixing a present tense with a past tense, which is not grammatically correct. In both Greek and English, we would put or find our past tense first, followed by the present tense; logically reasoning that the past happened before the present. However, the adverb “before” affects this decision, for it informs us that the action expressed by our present tense verb (“am”) not only began in the past, but it was before our past tense verb (“came to be”), and up unto our past tense verb and still in progress at the time this clause was uttered. The other translations have been following the grammar rule known as PPA, the Present of Past Action still in progress in several other places in John’s Gospel (14:9; 15:27, etc.), wherein a present indicative (“I am” or “you are”), which is accompanied by an adverbial expression (“so much time” or “from the beginning” or “before”), is rendered with the perfect tense of “have been.” The PPA is describing an action that began in the past and has run up unto the time of writing or speaking. The question is, do we find the context of John 8:58 as being in harmony with our grammar. See the context section below.
Grammar and Syntax:
- πρὶν (prin) Adjective adverb [
- ᾿Αβραὰμ (Abraam) Noun accusati
- γενέσθαι (genesthai) Verb infi
- ἐγὼ (ego) Noun pronoun nominat
- εἰμί (eimi) Verb indicative present active [“I am”]
Lexical-Syntactical Analysis and Comparison: In this stage, we will continue with our look at individual words (lexicology), but we will also take a deeper look into our new stage of how these words are dealt with in concert with each other (syntax). However, to avoid theological bias, we will look at two other examples of this same grammatical construction in the Gospel of John first, staying outside of the highly theologically charged John 8:58 at this time, to see how other translations deal with the grammatical construction before rendering John 8:58.
ESV John 14:9
NASB John 14:9
ASV John 14:9
CSB John 14:9
Have I been with you so long
Have I been so long with you
Have I been so long time with you
Have I been among you all this time
The “I am” present indicative of John 14:9 is ‘modified’ by the past time expression “so much time.” How do our translations render this verse? Do they ignore the grammar rules, using present tense (“I am”), or do they follow the grammar rules that we are about to discuss, and use a perfect tense (“have been”)? Our translations do follow the grammar rule.
ESV John 15:27
NASB John 15:27
ASV John 15:27
CSB John 15:27
you have been with me from the beginning
you have been with Me from the beginning
ye have been with me from the beginning
you have been with me from the beginning
The “you are” present indicative of John 15:27 is ‘modified’ by the past time expression “from the beginning.”
Greek Grammar: At this point, it is time to visit the Greek grammars, looking for this particular construction that we have found in John 8:58, as well as all throughout the Gospel of John. The grammar rule for a present tense that is found positioned with an adverbial expression of past time and duration is largely known as a PPA
Moulton’s references Ernest De Witt Burton in his Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in N.T. Greek, ‘The Tenses,’ par.17, p.10, we can read: “17. The Present of Past Action still in progress [PPA]. The Present Indicative, accompanied by an adverbial expression denoting duration and referring to past time, is sometimes used in Greek, as in German, to describe an action which, beginning in past time, is still in progress at the time of speaking. English idiom requires the use of the Perfect in such cases.” Bold and underline is mine.
A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament, by Dana and Mantey, MacMillan, 1927, p. 183, says, “Sometimes the progressive present is retroactive in its application, denoting that which has begun in the past and continued into the present. For the want of a better name, we may call it the present of duration. This use is generally associated with an adverb of time and may best be rendered by the English perfect. “Ye have been (present tense) with me from the beginning” John 15:27.”
A Grammar of New Testament Greek, by J. H. Moulton, Vol. III, by Nigel Turner, Edinburgh, 1963, p. 62, says, “The Present which indicates the continuance of an action during the past and up to the moment of speaking is virtually the same as Perfective, the only difference being that the action is conceived as still in progress . . . It is frequent in the N[ew] T[estament]: Lk 248 137 . . . 1529 . . . Jn 56 858 . . . ”
Greek Grammar for Colleges, by Herbert Weir Smyth, New York, 1920, pp. 422-423: “The present, when accompanied by a definite or indefinite expression of past time, is used to express an action begun in the past and continued in the present. The ‘progressive perfect’ is often used in translation. Thus,… I have been long (and am still) wondering.”
As we can see, the translations have been following the grammar rule known as PPA, the Present of Past Action still in progress, wherein a present indicative (“I am” or “you are”), which is accompanied by an adverbial expression (“so much time” or “from the beginning” or “before”), is rendered with the perfect tense of “have been.” The PPA is describing an action that began in the past and has run up unto the time of writing or speaking. Let us pause and look at two more examples.
ESV John 8:24
NASB John 8:24
ASV John 8:24
CSB John 8:24
for unless you believe that I am he you will die in your sins.
for unless you believe that I am He, you will die in your sins.
for except ye believe that I am he, ye shall die in your sins.
For if you do not believe that I am he, you will die in your sins.”
We have an implied predicate nominative (“he”) that comes after the “I am.” Notice that all these translations recognize the implied predicate nominative (“he”) that comes after the “I am.”
ESV John 4:26
NASB John 4:26
ASV John 4:26
CSB John 4:26
Jesus said to her, “I who speak to you am he.”
Jesus said to her, “I who speak to you am He.”
Jesus saith unto her, I that speak unto thee am he.
Jesus told her, “I, the one speaking to you, am he.”
Here in John chapter 4, you have Jesus being spoken to by a Samaritan woman. She is inquiring about the coming Messiah, and Jesus does something with the Samaritan woman that he has not done even with his disciples, He discloses who he really is, “I am the one” [i.e., the Messiah]. The ESV, like the other translations that we have considered, is aware that there is an implied predicate pronoun in the sentence “I am [he] the one speaking to you.” The predicate nominative is supplied from context in the English translation. The Lexham English Bible writes in a footnote, “Here the predicate nominative (“he”) is understood but must be supplied in the translation.” Again, our other translations recognize this.
ESV John 13:19
NASB John 13:19
ASV John 13:19
CSB John 13:19
you may believe that I am he
you may believe that I am he
you may believe that I am he
you will believe that I am he
Jesus is merely pointing to himself as a fulfillment of the prophecy in which one of his closest disciples would betray him. (See John 13:18 and Psalm 41:9) Again, the Lexham English Bible writes in a footnote, “Here the predicate nominative (“he”) is understood but must be supplied in the translation.” Again, our other translations recognize this.
Context, Context, Context: The most important interpretation rule is the context. All along, our grammars have been telling us about the PPA rule. The PPA is describing an action that began in the past and had run up unto the time of writing or speaking. The question is, do we find the context of John 8:58 as being in harmony with our grammar. Well, let us look at the verse(s) that come before and after our verse. In verse 57, the Jews ask a question in reference to Jesus’ statement in verse 56: “Your father Abraham rejoiced that he would see my day. He saw it and was glad.” Thus, they reasonably ask, “You are not yet fifty years old, and have you seen Abraham?” It is all too clear that we have a question that is based on age, not Jesus’ identity. Our historical-cultural question is addressed in verse 59, where we find the Jews seeking to stone Jesus for his response. What was there about Jesus’ response that would result in their attempt to stone him? To claim to have been in existence since before Abraham and up unto this point; would mean Jesus was/is a divine person. Bible scholar Kenneth L. McKay wrote: “to claim to have been in existence for so long is in itself a staggering one, quite enough to provoke the crowd’s violent reaction.” – McKay: The Expository Times, 1996, p. 302.
Our “am” present indicative is ‘modified’ by the adverbial past time expression of prin (before), an adverb. In other words, “Before Abraham came to be.” As many grammarians have suggested, getting the exact sense of the original Greek, it is best to render the present indicative “am” as the perfect indicative “have been.” It is not only best but also required as was said; the present indicative “am” is ‘modified’ to the perfect indicative “have been.”
As was said earlier, a translation should reflect the meaning of the original Greek in English by way of being unbiased, accurate, clear, and natural. Is a translation unbiased to follow a grammatical construction in other parts of John when there is no theological significance at stake, but to abandon this grammar at John 8:58? Is it unbiased to capitalize εἰμί (eimi) as “I AM” when there is absolutely no authority for such a decision? Is a translator accurately communicating the correct sense when he ignores the grammar and the context and takes it upon himself to render a verse based on his preconceived understanding? Is it clear if the reader is blocked by the translator’s choice and is unable to achieve the correct mental understanding of the original writer? Does the translation that reads, “Before Abraham came to be, I AM,” sound natural in our English language and is it appropriate? A translator and textual scholar must be (1) honest in all his work, (2) follow the truth regardless, (3) and obey God, not man.
 Sinner: (ἁμαρτωλός hamartōlos) In the Scriptures “sinners” is generally used in a more specific way, that is, referring to those willfully living in sin, practicing sin, or have a reputation of sinning. – Matt. 9:10; Mark 2:15; Luke 5:30; 7:37-39; John 9:16; Rom. 3:7; Gal. 2:15; 1 Tim. 1:15; Heb. 7:26; Jam. 4:8; 1 Pet 4:18; Jude 1:15.
 The original wording in John 9:35 is “Do you believe in the Son of Man?” (σὺ πιστεύεις εἰς τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) in very good early documentary witnesses P66 P75 א B D W itd syrs cop and GENTI WH NU TGNT SBLGNT. We have a variant, “Do you believe in the Son of God?” (συ πιστευεις εις τον υιον του θεου) in A L Θ Ψ 070 0250 f,13 Maj syr,h and the TR. It is highly unlikely that “God” was changed to “man.” The Scribes in the later manuscripts seem to be motivated by Jesus’ being the divine Son.
 Johannes P. Louw and Eugene Albert Nida, vol. 1, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains, electronic ed. of the 2nd edition. (New York: United Bible societies, 1996), 217.
 Lit (κεκοίμηται kekoimētai) fallen asleep
 Greek (litra); a litra, that is, a Roman pound, about 327 g (11.5 oz)
 Greek (nardos); a thick, aromatic plant, in which the stems and roots are generally considered the source of the nard or spikenard mentioned in Scripture
 Or deliver him up
 Three hundred denarii would have been about eleven months wages for a common laborer. Denarius: (dēnarion; Roman, silver) The denarius was equivalent to a day’s wages for a common laborer (12 hours). It was sixty-four quadrantes. It had an image of Caesar on one side. It was the “head tax” coin demanded by the Roman government from their subjects.–Matt. 20:2, 9; Mark 14:5; Lu 10:35; 20:24; John 6:7; Rev. 6:6.
 That is, steal
 Quotation from Psalm 118:25-26
 Quotation from Zechariah 9:9
 That is Jesus
 That is, life
 That is, life
 Lit into the age
 Quotation from Isaiah 53:1
 Quotation from Isaiah 6:10
 Or expelled from
 Though in the so-called Western world there is a tendency to have three meals each day, breakfast, lunch, and dinner (or supper), in many parts of the world there are only two principal meals: one eaten around nine or ten o’clock in the morning, and another at four or five o’clock in the afternoon.
 Or he wrapped it around his waist
 Or you are right
 Quotation from Ps 41:9
 Lit hand me over
 Or many abodes
 Some manuscripts lack me (A D K L Π Ψ Byz al). However, “me” has sufficient quality manuscript support (P66 P75vid א B W Δ Θ f 13 28 33 700 al VG SYRh,p). There was a desire on the part of some copyists to avoid a contradiction with 16:23, which is why we have the omission of με [“me”] in a variety of manuscripts (A D K L Π Ψ Byz al) and με [“me”] being replaced with τὸν πατέρα [“the Father”] in other manuscripts (249 397).
 Or Advocate. Or Comforter. Gr., ho … parakletos, masc.
 Remain; Stay; Abide: (Gr. meno) It can mean to remain or stay in one place over a period of time. It also means to continue a certain state, condition, or activity. We remain in union with Jesus and remain in the Father’s love by having an enduring continued faith and loving obedience to both the Father and the Son. Personal study of God’s Word, heartfelt prayer, teaching and making disciples, preparing for and worshipping at Christian meetings will enable us to remain.–John 15:4-7, 9-10; 1 John 2:24, 27-28
 Or servant
 Or servant
 This is an idiom that refers to guilt caused by sin.
 That is, guilt
 That is, pain
 Lit a man
 Other mss read from [the] God. The reading τοῦ πατρός (the Father) is strongly supported by B C* D L X al.
 That is, figurative language, a figure of speech
 Or son of perdition
 Lit the winter torrent of Kidron
 Or servant
 The chiliarch Gr ho chiliarchos; commander of a thousand soldiers.
 Jews Gr Ioudaioi, as in 10:31, 33. Here it is likely a reference to Jewish religious leaders.
 That is, at the entrance
 Lit a synagogue
 That is, the governor’s residence
 That is, the governor’s residence
 That is, the governor’s residence
 That is, to beat severely with a whip
 Lit he
 Jews Gr Ioudaioi, as in 10:31, 33. Here it is likely a reference to Jewish religious leaders.
 That is, the governor’s residence
 A word of uncertain derivation and possibly meaning “hill,” “height,” or “open space.” The Greek name for it is Lithostrotos.
 That is, about 12:00 noon, counting from sunrise
 A garment worn next to the skin.
 A small aromatic bush, the branches of which were often used by the Jews in religious ceremonies.
 That is, he died, expired
 Sometimes two legal Sabbaths would fall on the same day, resulting in a Great Sabbath, for instance when Nisan 15 (a Sabbath day) occurred with the regular Sabbath.
 A quotation from Zechariah 12:10
 Gr., litras, generally equated with the Roman pound that weighed 327 g (11.5 oz)
 In the NT ὀθόνιον (othonion) occurs only in reference to strips of cloth used in preparing a corpse for burial.
 A small piece of cloth used as a towel, napkin, or face cloth.
 Mary Magdalene feared that Jesus was about to leave and ascend into heaven.
 Believe, faith, Trust in: (Gr. pisteuo) If pisteuo is followed by the Greek preposition eis, (“into, in, among,” accusative case), it is generally rendered “trusting in” or “trust in.” (John 3:16, 36; 12:36; 14:1) The grammatical construction of the Greek verb pisteuo “believe” followed by the Greek preposition eis “into” in the accusative gives us the sense of having faith into Jesus, putting faith in, trusting in Jesus.–Matt. 21:25, 32; 27:42; John 1:7, 12; 2:23–24; 3:15–16, 36; 6:47; 11:25; 12:36; 14:1; 20:31; Acts 16:31; Rom. 4:3.
 To cause to become visible—‘to make appear, to make visible, to cause to be seen.
 To cause to become visible—‘to make appear, to make visible, to cause to be seen.
 That is, the Twin
 That is, lightly clad; Gr gymnos can mean being completely naked, being inadequately dressed, or being lightly clad without one’s outer garment. Peter was the later, he was dressed for work, wearing just his inner garment.
 To cause to become visible—‘to make appear, to make visible, to cause to be seen.―GELNTBSD.
 Gr agapao; to have love for someone or something, based on sincere appreciation and high regard. It has to do with the mind: it is not simply an emotion.
 Gr phileo; to have love or affection for someone or something based on association.
 Gr agapao; see note on vs 15
 Gr phileo; see note on vs 15
 Gr phileo; see note on vs 15
 Gr phileo; see note on vs 15
 Gr phileo; see note on vs 15
 Lit scroll