The Epistle of Paul to the Romans

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The Epistle of Paul to the Romans

  • Who Wrote: The Apostle Paul
  • Where Written: Corinth
  • When Written: c. 56 C.E.


The Gospel of God to the Rome

1 Paul, a slave of Christ Jesus and called to be an apostle,[1] set apart for the gospel of God, which he promised beforehand through his prophets in the holy Scriptures, concerning his Son, who came from the seed[2] of David according to the flesh, who was declared to be the Son of God according to the Spirit of holiness by means of resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord, through whom we have received grace and apostleship for the obedience of faith among all the nations on behalf of his name, among whom you also are the called of Jesus Christ;

to all those who are in Rome as beloved ones of God, called to be holy ones: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Paul’s Desire to Visit Rome

First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ concerning all of you, because your faith is being proclaimed in the whole world. For God, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, is my witness, how unceasingly I make mention of you, 10 always in my prayers making request, if somehow now at last by the will of God I may succeed in coming to you. 11 For I am longing to see you, that I may impart some spiritual gift to you for you to be strengthened; 12 that is, that I may be encouraged together with you while among you, each of us by one another’s faith, both yours and mine. 13 But I do not want you to be unaware, brothers,[3] that I often planned to come to you (but I have been prevented until now) in order that I might acquire some fruitage also among you just as among the rest of the Gentiles. 14 I am a debtor both to Greeks and to barbarians,[4] both to the wise and to the foolish. 15 So, on my part, I am eager to preach the gospel to you also who are in Rome.

16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. 17 For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith for faith, as it is written, “The righteous shall live by faith.”[5]

Unbelief and Its Consequences as the Ungodly People Are Inexcusable

18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness, 19 because that which is known about God is evident among[6] them; for God made it evident to them. 20 For his invisible attributes are clearly seen from the creation of the world,  being perceived through what has been made, even his eternal power and divine nature, so that they are without excuse. 21 For although they knew God, they did not honor him as God or give thanks, but they became futile in their reasoning, and their foolish hearts were darkened. 22 Claiming to be wise, they became fools, 23 and exchanged the glory of the incorruptible God for an image in the form of corruptible man and of birds and four-footed animals and creeping things.[7]

24 Therefore God gave them over in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, so that their bodies would be dishonored among them. 25 For they exchanged the truth of God for the lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever.[8] Amen.

26 For this reason God gave them over to degrading passions; for their women exchanged natural relations[9] for those that are contrary to nature, 27 and the men likewise gave up natural relations with women and were violently inflamed in their lust toward one another, males with males committing the shameless deed, and receiving in themselves the due penalty for their error.

28 And just as they did not see fit to acknowledge God any longer, God gave them over to a depraved mind, to do those things which are not proper, 29 being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malice; they are gossips, 30 slanderers, haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents, 31 without understanding, untrustworthy, unloving, unmerciful; 32 and although they know the ordinance of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of death, they not only do the same, but also give wholehearted approval to those who practice them.


The Righteous Judgment of God

2 Therefore you have no excuse, O man, every one of you who judges. For in passing judgment on another you condemn yourself, for you who judge practice the same things. And we know that the judgment of God is according to truth against those who practice such things. But do you suppose this, O man, who passes judgment on those who practice such things and do the same yourself, that you will escape the judgment of God? Or do you despise the riches of his kindness and forbearance and patience, not knowing that the kindness of God leads you to repentance? But because of your stubbornness and unrepentant heart, you are storing up for yourself wrath in the day of wrath and of the revelation of the righteous judgment of God, who will render to each one according to his works: to those who, by perseverance in good work, seek glory and honor and immortality, eternal life; but to those who act from selfishly ambitious[10] and who disobey the truth, but who obey unrighteousness, wrath and anger. There will be tribulation and distress upon[11] every soul of man who does evil, of the Jew first and also of the Greek, 10 but glory and honor and peace to everyone who does good, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. 11 For there is no partiality with God.

How the Conscience Functions

12 For all who have sinned without the law will also perish without the law, and all who have sinned under the law will be judged by the law; 13 for it is not the hearers of the law who are righteous before God, but the doers of the law who will be justified. 14 For when Gentiles who do not have the law by nature do the things of the law, these, not having the law, are a law to themselves, 15 in that they show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness and between their own thoughts they are being accused or even excused, 16 on the day when, according to my gospel, God will judge the secrets of men through Christ Jesus.

The Jews and the Law

17 But if you call yourself a Jew and rely on the law and boast in God, 18 and know his will and approve the things that are superior, because you are instructed by the Law, 19 and are confident that you yourself are a guide to the blind, a light to those who are in darkness, 20 an instructor of the foolish, a teacher of the immature, having the embodiment of knowledge and of the truth in the Law, 21 you, therefore, who teach another, do you not teach yourself? You who preach that one shall not steal, do you steal? 22 You who say that one should not commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 23 You who boast in the law, through your breaking[12] the Law, do you dishonor God? 24 For “the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you,”[13] just as it is written.

Circumcision of the Heart

25 For circumcision is of value if you do the law, but if you should be a transgressor of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. 26 So if the uncircumcised[14] man keeps the requirements of the Law, will not his uncircumcision be regarded as circumcision? 27 And he who is physically uncircumcised, if he keeps the Law, will he not judge you who though having the letter of the Law and circumcision are a transgressor of the law? 28 For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, nor is circumcision that which is outward in the flesh. 29 But he is a Jew who is one inwardly; and circumcision is that which is of the heart, by the Spirit, not by the letter; and his praise is not from men, but from God.


By Faith All Are Declared Righteous

3 What, then, is the advantage of the Jew, or what is the benefit of circumcision? Much in every way. For first, that they were entrusted with the sayings[15] of God. What then? If some were unfaithful, will their unfaithfulness nullify the faithfulness of God, will it? May it never be! Rather, let God be found true, though every man be found a liar, as it is written,

“That you may be justified in your words,
    and prevail when you are judged.”[16]

But if our unrighteousness demonstrates the righteousness of God, what shall we say? God, who inflicts wrath, is not unjust, is he? (I am speaking in human terms.) May it never be! For otherwise, how will God judge the world? But if through my lie the truth of God abounded to his glory, why am I also still being judged as a sinner?[17] And why not say, just as we are slandered, and as some affirm that we say, “Let us do evil things that good things may come”? Their condemnation is just.

Both Jews and Greeks are Under Sin

What then? Are we better than they? Not at all; for we have already charged that both Jews and Greeks are all under sin; 10 as it is written,

“None is righteous, not even one;
there is no one who understands;
    there is no one who seeks for God.
12 All have turned aside; together they have become worthless;
    there is none who does good,
    there is not even one.”[18]
13 “Their throat is an open grave;
    with their tongues they keep deceiving.”
“The venom of asps is under their lips.”[19]
14 “Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness;”[20]
15 “Their feet are swift to shed blood;
16 destruction and misery are in their paths,
17 and the way of peace they have not known.”[21]
18 “There is no fear of God before their eyes.”[22]

19 Now we know that whatever the Law says, it speaks to those who are under the Law, so that every mouth may be closed, and all the world may become accountable to God; 20 because by the works of law no flesh will be justified in his sight; for by law comes the accurate knowledge[23] of sin.

Righteousness through faith

21 But now apart from Law the righteousness of God has been manifested, being witnessed by law and  the Prophets, 22 even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all those who believe; for there is no distinction; 23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, 24 being justified as a gift by his grace through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus; 25 whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in his blood through faith. This was to demonstrate his righteousness, because in the forbearance of God he passed over the sins previously committed; 26 it was to show his righteousness at the present time, so that he might be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus.

27 Therefore, where is boasting? It has been excluded. By what kind of law? Of works? No, but by a law of faith. 28 For we consider a person to be justified by faith apart from the works of the law. 29 Or is God the God of Jews only? Is he not the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also, 30 since God is one, who will justify those who are circumcised[24] by[25] faith and those who are uncircumcised[26] through faith.

31 Therefore, do we nullify the law through faith? May it never be! But we uphold the law.


Abraham Declared Righteous by Faith

4 What then shall we say that Abraham, our forefather according to the flesh, has found? For if Abraham was justified by[27] works, he has something to boast about, but not before[28] God. For what does the Scripture say? “Abraham put faith[29] in God, and it was credited to him as righteousness.” Now to the one who works, his wages are not credited as a gift but as his due. But to the one who does not work, but believes in him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is credited as righteousness, just as David also speaks of the blessing on the man to whom God credits righteousness apart from works:

“Blessed are those whose lawless deeds have been forgiven,
And whose sins have been covered.
“Blessed is the man whose sin the Lord will not take into account.”

Is this blessing then on the circumcised,[30] or on the uncircumcised[31] also? For we say, “Faith was credited to Abraham as righteousness.” 10 How then was it credited? While he was circumcised,[32] or uncircumcised?[33] Not while circumcised,[34] but while uncircumcised;[35] 11 and he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while uncircumcised,[36] so that he might be the father of all who believe without being circumcised, that righteousness might be credited to them, 12 and the father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also follow in the steps of the faith of our father Abraham which he had while uncircumcised.[37]

Promise Received Through Faith

13 For the promise to Abraham and his offspring that he would be heir of the world did not come through the law but through the righteousness of faith. 14 For if those who are of the Law are heirs, faith is made void and the promise is nullified; 15 for the Law produces wrath, but where there is no law, neither is there transgression.[38]

16 That is why it is through faith, in order that it may be in accordance with grace, so that the promise will be guaranteed to all the descendants, not only to those who are of the Law, but also to those who are of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all, 17 (as it is written, “A father of many nations have I made you”)[39] in the presence of him whom he believed, even God, who gives life to the dead and who calls the things that are not as though they are. 18 In hope he believed against hope, that he should become the father of many nations, as he had been told, “So shall your offspring be.”[40] 19 He did not weaken in faith when he considered his own body, which was as good as dead (since he was about a hundred years old), and the deadness of Sarah’s womb; 20 yet, with respect to the promise of God, he did not waver in unbelief but grew strong in faith, giving glory to God, 21 and being fully assured that what God had promised, he was able also to perform. 22 Therefore it was also credited to him as righteousness. 23 However, the words “it was credited to him” were not written for his sake alone, 24 but for our sake also, to whom it will be credited, as those who believe in Him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, 25 who was delivered over because of our trespasses,[41] and was raised because of our justification.


Reconciled to God Through Christ

5 Therefore, having been justified by faith, let us have peace[42] with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom also we have obtained access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and we boast in the hope of the glory of God. And not only that, but let us exult while in tribulations, since we know that tribulation produces endurance; and endurance produces proven character, and proven character produces hope; and hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out within our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us.

For while we were still helpless, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly. For one will scarcely die for a righteous man, though perhaps for a good man one would dare even to die. But God shows his love for us in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, having now been justified by his blood, we shall be saved from the wrath of God through him. 10 For if while we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved by his life. 11 Not only that, but we are also exulting in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation.

Death Through Adam, Life Through Christ

12 Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men,  because all sinned, 13 or until the Law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law. 14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the likeness of Adam’s transgression, who is a type of the one who is to come.

15 But the free gift is not like the trespass.[43] For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many. 16 And it is not the same with the free gift as with the way things worked through the one man who sinned. For the judgment after one trespass was condemnation, but the gift after many trespasses was justification.[44] 17 For if by the trespass of the one, death reigned through the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the one, Jesus Christ.

One Act of Justification

18 So, then, as through one trespass there was condemnation to all men, so too through one act of righteousness there was justification of life to all men. 19 For as through the one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners, so also through the obedience of the one the many will be made righteous. 20 The Law came in so that the transgression would increase; but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more, 21 so that, as sin reigned in death, even so grace would reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.


New life Through Baptism into Christ

6 What shall we say then? Are we to continue in sin that grace may abound? May it never be! How can we who died to sin still live in it? Or do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? Therefore we have been buried with him through baptism into death, so that as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life. For if we have been united with him in the likeness of his death, we will certainly also be in the likeness of his resurrection, knowing this, that our old man was crucified together with him, in order that the body[45] of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be slaves to sin; for he who has died is freed[46] from sin.

Now if we have died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him, knowing that Christ, having been raised from the dead, dies no more,[47] death is master over him no more. 10 For the death he died he died to sin, once for all, but the life he lives he lives to God. 11 Even so consider yourselves to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus.

Do Not Let Sin Rule In Your Bodies

12 Therefore do not let sin reign in your mortal body so that you obey its lusts, 13 and do not go on presenting the members of your body to sin as instruments of unrighteousness; but present yourselves to God as those alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness to God. 14 For sin will have no dominion over you, since you are not under law but under grace.

From Slaves of Sin to Slaves of God

15 What then? Shall we sin because we are not under law but under grace? May it never be! 16 Do you not know that when you present yourselves to someone as slaves for obedience, you are slaves of the one whom you obey, either of sin resulting in death, or of obedience resulting in righteousness? 17 But thanks be to God that you were slaves of sin, but you became obedient from the heart to that form of teaching to which you were committed, 18 and having been freed from sin, you became slaves of righteousness. 19 I am speaking in human terms, because of your natural limitations. For just as you once presented your members as slaves to impurity and to lawlessness leading to more lawlessness, so now present your members as slaves to righteousness leading to sanctification.

Wages of Sin Is Death; Gift of God Is life

20 For when you were slaves of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 21 Therefore what fruit were you producing at that time from the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death. 22 But now having been set free from sin and having become slaves to God, you are producing your fruit in the way of sanctification, and the end is eternal life. 23 For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift[48] of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.


Release from the Law Illustrated

7 Or do you not know, brothers, (for I am speaking to those who know law) that the Law is master over a man as long as he lives? For a married woman is bound by law to her husband while he lives, but if her husband dies she is released from the law concerning the husband. So then, if while her husband is living, she is joined to another man, she shall be called an adulteress; but if her husband dies, she is free from the law, so that she is not an adulteress though she is joined to another man.

Therefore, my brothers, you also have died to the Law through the body of Christ, so that you may belong to another, to him who has been raised from the dead, in order that we may bear fruit for God. For while we were living in the flesh, our sinful passions, aroused by the Law, were at work in our members to bear fruit for death. But now we have been released from the Law, having died to that by which we were bound, so that we serve in newness of the Spirit and not in oldness of the letter.

What shall we say then? Is the Law sin? May it never be! On the contrary, I would not have come to know sin except through the Law; for I would not have known about coveting if the Law had not said, “You shall not covet.” But sin, taking opportunity through the commandment, produced in me coveting of every kind; for apart from the Law sin is dead. I was once alive apart from the law, but when the commandment came, sin came alive and I died; 10 and the commandment that was to lead to life, this I found led to death; 11 for sin, seizing an opportunity through the commandment, deceived me and through it killed me. 12 So then, the Law is holy, and the commandment is holy and righteous and good.

13 Therefore did that which is good become a cause of death for me? May it never be! Rather it was sin, in order that it might be shown to be sin by effecting my death through that which is good, so that through the commandment sin might become exceedingly sinful.

The Conflict of Two Natures

14 For we know that the Law is spiritual, but I am of the flesh, sold under sin. 15 For what I am doing, I do not understand; for I am not practicing what I would like to do, but I am doing the very thing I hate. 16 But if what I am not willing to do, this I am doing, I agree that the Law is good. 17 So now I am no longer the one doing it, but sin that dwells in me. 18 For I know that nothing good dwells in me, that is, in my flesh; for the desire is present in me, but the doing of the good is not. 19 For the good that I want, I do not do, but I practice the very evil that I do not want. 20 But if what I do not want to do, this I am doing, I am no longer the one doing it, but sin which dwells in me.

21 I find then the law in me that when I want to do right, that evil is present in me. 22 For I delight in the law of God according to the inner man, 23 but I see a different law in my members, warring against the law of my mind and taking me captive in the law of sin which is in my members. 24 Wretched man that I am! Who will deliver me from this body of death? 25 Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord! So then, I myself with my mind am a slaved to the law of God, but with my flesh, I serve the law of sin.


Life and Freedom Through the Spirit

8 There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set you free from the law of sin and death. For what was impossible for the Law, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and concerning sin, he condemned sin in the flesh, in order that the righteous requirement of the Law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit. For those who are according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who are according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. For setting the mind on the flesh is death but setting the mind on the spirit is life and peace because setting the mind on the flesh means enmity toward God, for it is not subjected to the law of God, for it is not even able to do so, and those who are in the flesh cannot please God.

However, you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to him. 10 If Christ is in you, though the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is life[49] because of righteousness. 11 If the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through[50] his Spirit who dwells in you.

Spirit of Adoption Bears Witness

12 So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh, 13 for if you are living according to the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 14 For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God. 15 For you have not received a spirit of slavery leading to fear again, but you have received a spirit of adoption[51] as sons, by which we cry out, “Abba![52] Father!” 16 The Spirit itself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God, 17 and if children, we are also heirs, heirs indeed of God, but joint heirs with Christ, if indeed we suffer together so that we may also be glorified together.

Creation Awaits Freedom of God’s Children

18 For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory that is to be revealed to us. 19 For the creation is waiting with eager expectation for the revealing of the sons of God. 20 For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it, in hope 21 that the creation itself also will be set free from its slavery to corruption into the freedom of the glory of the children of God. 22 For we know that the whole creation has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now. 23 And not only this, but also, we ourselves, having the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting eagerly for our adoption as sons, the redemption of our body.[53] 24 For in hope we were saved, but hope that is seen is not hope, for who hopes for what he sees? 25 But if we hope for what we do not see, we eagerly wait for it with patience.

The Spirit Pleads for Us

26 In the same way the Spirit also helps our weakness; for we do not know how to pray as we should, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groanings too deep for words; 27 and he who searches hearts knows what the mind of the Spirit is, because the Spirit intercedes for the holy ones according to the will of God.

28 And we know that all things work together for good for those who love God, for those who are called according to his purpose. 29 For those whom he foreknew he also decided beforehand[54] to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might be the firstborn among many brothers; 30 and those whom he decided beforehand[55] he also called, and those whom he called he also justified, and those whom he justified he also glorified.

Victorious Through the Love of God

31 What then shall we say to these things? If God is for us, who is against us? 32 He who did not spare his own Son, but delivered him over for us all, how will he not also with him freely give us all things? 33 Who will bring charges against God’s chosen ones? God is the one who justifies; 34 who is the one who condemns? Christ Jesus is he who died, yes, rather who was raised, who is at the right hand of God, who also intercedes for us. 35 Who will separate us from the love of Christ? Will tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or danger, or sword? 36 As it is written,

“For your sake we are being put to death all day long;
    we are considered as sheep to be slaughtered.”[56]

37 But in all these things we are more than conquerors through the one having loved us. 38 For I am convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor rulers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers, 39 nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing, will be able to separate us from the love of God that is in Christ Jesus our Lord.


Israel’s Rejection of Christ

9 I am telling the truth in Christ, I am not lying, my conscience bears witness to me in the Holy Spirit, that I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart. For I could pray[57] that I myself were accursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my brothers, my kinsmen according to the flesh, who are Israelites, to whom belongs the adoption[58] as sons, and the glory and the covenants and the giving of the Law and the temple service and the promises, to whom belong the patriarchs, and from whom is the Christ according to the flesh. God, who is over all, be praised forever.[59] Amen.

The True Offspring of Abraham

But it is not as though the word of God has failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are truly Israel; nor are they all children because they are descendants[60] of Abraham, but “In Isaac will your descendants be named.”[61] This means that it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as offspring.[62] For this is the word of promise: “At this time I will come, and Sarah shall have a son.” 10 And not only this, but there was Rebekah also, when she had conceived twins by one man, our father Isaac; 11 for though the twins were not yet born and had not done anything good or bad, so that God’s purpose according to his choice would stand, not because of works but because of him who calls, 12 it was said to her, “The older will be the slave of the younger.” 13 just as it is written, “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.”[63]

God’s Choice Cannot Be Questioned

14 What shall we say then? There is no injustice with God, is there? May it never be! 15 For he says to Moses, “I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.”[64] 16 So then it does not depend on the man who wills or the man who runs, but on God who has mercy. 17 For the Scripture says to Pharaoh, “For this very purpose I have raised you up, that I might show my power in you, and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.”[65] 18 So then he has mercy on whom he wants, and he hardens whom he wants.

19 You will say to me then, “Why does he still find fault? For who can resist his will?” 20 On the contrary, O man, who are you who answers back to God? Will what is molded say to the one who molded it, “Why did you make me like this?”[66] 21 Or has the potter no right over the clay, to make out of the same lump one vessel for honorable use and another for dishonorable use? 22 What if God, wanting to demonstrate his wrath and to make known his power, endured with much patience vessels of wrath prepared for destruction? 23 And if this was done to make known the riches of his glory on vessels of mercy, which he prepared beforehand for glory, 24 even us whom he also called, not from the Jews only but also from the Gentiles? 25 As indeed he says in Hosea,

“I will call those who were not my people, ‘My people,’
    and her who was not beloved, ‘beloved.’”[67]
26 “And it shall be that in the place where it was said to them, ‘You are not my people,’
    there they shall be called ‘sons of the living God.’”[68]

Only a Remnant Will Be Saved

27 And Isaiah cries out concerning Israel: “Though the number of the sons of Israel be as the sand of the sea, only a remnant of them will be saved; 28 for the Lord will execute his sentence upon the earth fully and without cutting it short.” 29 And just as Isaiah foretold,

“If the Lord of the armies[69] had not left us offspring,[70]
    we would have become like Sodom
        and would have resembled Gomorrah.”[71]

Israel Stumbled

30 What shall we say, then? That Gentiles who did not pursue righteousness have attained righteousness, even the righteousness that is by faith; 31 but Israel, pursuing a law of righteousness, did not arrive at that law. 32 Why is that? Because they did not pursue it by faith, but as if it were by works. They stumbled over the stumbling stone, 33 as it is written,

“Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense;
    and whoever believes in him will not be put to shame.”[72]


The Righteousness of God through Faith in Christ

10 Brothers, my heart’s desire and my prayer to God for them is for their salvation. For I bear them witness that they have a zeal for God, but not according to accurate knowledge.[73] 3 For ignoring the righteousness of God, and seeking to establish their own, they did not subject themselves to the righteousness of God. For Christ is the end of the Law for righteousness to everyone who believes.

For Moses writes about the righteousness that is by the Law: “The man who does these things will live by means of them.”[74] But the righteousness based on[75] faith says: “Do not say in your heart,[76] ‘Who will ascend into heaven?’[77] that is, to bring Christ down, “or ‘Who will descend into the abyss?’”[78] (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead).” But what does it say? “The word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart,” that is, the word of faith which we are proclaiming, that[79] if you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. 10 For with the heart one believes, resulting in righteousness,[80] and with the mouth one confesses, resulting in salvation.[81] 11 For the Scripture says, “Everyone who believes in him will not be put to shame.”[82] 12 For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, who is rich to all who call on him; 13 for “everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.”[83]

14  How then will they call on him in whom they have not believed? And how are they to believe in him of whom they have never heard? And how will they hear without someone to preach? 15 And how are they to preach unless they are sent? As it is written, “How beautiful are the feet of those who declare good news of good things!”[84]

Good News Rejected

16 But they have not all obeyed the gospel. For Isaiah says, “Lord,[85] who has believed what he has heard from us?” 17 So faith comes from hearing, and hearing through the word of Christ.

18 But I say, surely, they have never heard, have they? Indeed they have;

“Their voice has gone out to all the earth,
    and their words to the ends of the inhabited earth.”

19 But I say, Israel did not know, did they? First, Moses says,

“I will make you jealous of those who are not a nation;
    with a foolish nation I will make you angry.”[86]

20 And Isaiah is very bold and says,

“I was found by those who did not seek me;
    I became manifest to those who did not ask for me.”[87]

21 But as for Israel he says,

“All day long I have held out my hands to a disobedient and obstinate people.”[88]


Rejection of Israel Not Total

11 I say then, God has not rejected his people, has he? May it never be! For I also am an Israelite, from the descendants of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. God has not rejected his people whom he foreknew. Do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he appeals to God against Israel? “Lord, they have killed your prophets, they have torn down your altars, and I alone am left, and they are seeking my soul.”[89] But what does the divine response say to him? “I have kept for myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.”[90] So in the same way, at the present time also, there is a remnant according to a choosing through grace. But if it is by grace, it is no longer on the basis of works; otherwise grace would no longer be grace.

What then? What Israel is seeking, it has not obtained, but those who were chosen obtained it, and the rest were hardened; as it is written,

“God gave them a spirit of stupor,
    eyes that would not see
    and ears that would not hear,
down to this very day.”[91]

And David says,

“Let their table become a snare and a trap,
    a stumbling block[92] and a retribution for them;
10 let their eyes be darkened so that they do not see,
    and bend their backs forever.”[93]

11 I say then, they did not stumble so that they fell, did they? May it never be! But by their trespass, salvation has come to the Gentiles, to make them jealous. 12 Now if their trespass means riches for the world, and if their failure means riches for the Gentiles, how much more will their fullness mean! 13 Now I am speaking to you Gentiles. Inasmuch then as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify my ministry, 14 if I might somehow make my fellow Jews jealous, and thus save some of them. 15 For if their rejection means the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance mean but life from the dead? 16 If the firstfruits are holy, the batch is also; and if the root is holy, the branches are also.

Illustration of Olive Tree

17 But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, although being a wild olive, were grafted in among them and became a sharer of the richness of the olive’s root,[94] 18 do not be arrogant toward the branches; but if you are arrogant, remember that it is not you who supports the root, but the root supports you. 19 You will say then, “Branches were broken off so that I might be grafted in.” 20 That is true. They were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand fast through faith. So do not become haughty, but fear; 21 for if God did not spare the natural branches, he will not spare you, either. 22 See then the kindness and severity of God; to those who fell, severity, but to you, God’s kindness, if you continue in his kindness; otherwise you also will be cut off. 23 And they also, if they do not continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 24 For if you were cut from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and grafted, contrary to nature, into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, the natural branches, be grafted back into their own olive tree.

25 For I do not want you to be unaware of this mystery, brothers, so that you do not become wise in your own eyes: that a partial hardening has come upon Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in; 26 and so all Israel will be saved,[95] as it is written,

“The deliverer[96] will come out of Zion,
    he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob.”
27 “And this is the covenant on my part with them, when I take away their sins.”[97]

28 As regards the gospel, they are enemies for your sake. But as regards God’s choosing, they are beloved for the sake of their forefathers; 29 for the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable. 30 For just as you were at one time disobedient to God but now have received mercy because of their disobedience, 31 so these also now have been disobedient, that because of the mercy shown to you they also may now be shown mercy. 32 For God has shut up all in disobedience so that he may have mercy on all.

Depth of God’s Wisdom

33 Oh, the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and how untraceable his ways!

34 “For who has known the mind of the Lord,
    or who has been his counselor?”[98]
35 “Or who has given a gift to him
    that it might be paid back to him?”[99]

36 For from him and through him and to him are all things. To him be glory forever. Amen.


Present Your Bodies as a Living Sacrifice

12 Therefore I urge you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living and holy sacrifice, acceptable to God, which is your reasonable service.[100] And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may prove what the will of God is, that which is good and acceptable[101] and perfect.

Different Gifts But One Body

For through the grace given to me I say to everyone among you not to think more highly of himself than he ought to think; but to think so as to have a sound mind,[102] each one as God has apportioned to him a measure of faith. For just as we have many members in one body and all the members do not have the same function, so we, though many, are one body in Christ, and individually members one of another. Since, then, we have gifts that differ according to the grace given to us, if it is of prophecy, let us prophesy in proportion to our faith; if service, in our serving; the one who teaches, in his teaching; or he who exhorts, in his exhortation; he who gives, let him do it liberally; he who leads, let him do it diligently; he who shows mercy, let him do it cheerfully.

Guidance on True Christian Living

Let love be without hypocrisy. Abhor what is evil; cling to what is good. 10 In brotherly love have tender affection for one another; in showing honor to one another, take the lead; 11 Do not be slothful in zeal,[103] be fervent in spirit, slave for the Lord; 12 rejoicing in hope, enduring under tribulation, persevering in prayer, 13 contributing to the needs of the holy ones, pursuing hospitality.

14 Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse. 15 Rejoice with those who rejoice, and weep with those who weep. 16 Be of the same mind toward one another; do not be haughty in mind, but associate with the lowly. Do not be wise in your own eyes. 17 Return evil for evil to no one. Take thought to do what is honorable in the sight of all men. 18 If possible, so far as it depends on you, be at peace with all men. 19 Do not avenge yourselves, beloved, but yield place to the wrath;[104] for it is written: “‘Vengeance is mine; I will repay,’ says the Lord.” 20 But “if your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him something to drink; for by doing this you will heap burning coals on his head.” 21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.


Subjection to the Government

13 Let every soul[105] be in subjection to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except by God, and those that exist have been placed[106] by God. Therefore the one setting himself against authority has taken a stand against the ordinance of God; and those who have taken a stand against it will receive judgment against themselves. For rulers are not a cause of fear, not to the good deed, but to the bad. Do you want to be free of fear of the authority? Keep doing good, and you will have praise from it; for it is a minister of God to you for good. But if you do what is evil, be afraid; for it does not bear the sword for nothing; for it is a minister of God, an avenger who brings wrath on the one who practices bad. Therefore it is necessary to be in subjection, not only because of wrath, but also for conscience’ sake. For because of this you also pay taxes, for the authorities are ministers of God, attending to this very thing. Render to all what is due them: tax to whom tax is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honor to whom honor.

Love Fulfills the Law

Owe nothing to anyone, except to love one another, for the one who loves someone else has fulfilled the law. For the commandments, “You shall not commit adultery, you shall not commit murder, you shall not steal, you shall not covet,”[107] and if there is any other commandment, are summed up in this statement: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.”[108] 10 Love does not work evil to a neighbor; therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.

Walk as in the Daytime

11 Do this, knowing the season,[109] that it is already the hour for you to awaken from sleep; for now salvation is nearer to us than when we believed. 12 The night is well along; the day has drawn near. Let us therefore throw off the works belonging to darkness and let us put on the weapons of the light. 13 Let us behave properly as in the day, not in carousing and drunkenness, not in sexual promiscuity and sensuality, not in strife and jealousy. 14 But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, in regard to desires.


Do not Judge One Another

14 As for the one who is weak in faith, welcome him, but not to quarrel over opinions. One person has faith that he may eat all things, but he who is weak eats only vegetables. Let not the one who eats despise the one who does not eat, and the one who does not eat must not judge the one who eats, because God has accepted him. Who are you to pass judgment on the servant of another? It is before his own master that he stands or falls. And he will be upheld, for the Lord is able to make him stand.

One person esteems one day above another, while another esteems all days alike. Each one should be fully convinced in his own mind. The one who observes the day, observes it in honor of the Lord. The one who eats, eats in honor of the Lord, since he gives thanks to God, while the one who abstains, abstains in honor of the Lord and gives thanks to God. For not one of us lives for himself, and not one dies for himself; for if we live, we live for the Lord, or if we die, we die for the Lord; therefore whether we live or die, we are the Lord’s. For to this end Christ died and lived again, that he might be Lord both of the dead and of the living.

10 Why do you pass judgment on your brother? Or you, why do you despise your brother? For we will all stand before the judgment seat of God. 11 For it is written,

“As I live, says the Lord, every knee shall bow to me,
    and every tongue shall confess[110] to God.”

12 So, then, each of us will render an account for himself to God.

Do Not Cause Others to Stumble

13 Therefore, let us no longer pass judgment on one another, but rather decide this: not to place a cause for stumbling or a temptation before a brother. 14 I know and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus that nothing is unclean in itself, but to him who thinks anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean. 15 For if because of food your brother is hurt, you are no longer walking according to love. Do not destroy with your food him for whom Christ died. 16 Therefore, do not let the good you do be spoken of as bad; 17 for the kingdom of God is not eating and drinking, but righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Spirit. 18 For the one who serves Christ in this way is well-pleasing to God and approved by men. 

Work for Peace and Unity

19 So then we pursue the things which make for peace and the building up of one another. 20 Do not, for the sake of food, destroy the work of God. All things indeed are clean, but it is harmful for the man to eat and cause stumbling. 21 It is good not to eat meat or drink wine or do anything over which your brother stumbles.[111] 22 The faith that you have, keep it to yourself before God. Blessed is the man who does not judge himself by what he approves. 23 But the one who doubts is condemned if he eats, because he does not do so from faith; and whatever is not from faith is sin.


Welcome One Another as Christ Did

15 Now we who are strong ought to bear the weaknesses of those without strength and not please ourselves. Let each of us please his neighbor for his good, to build him up. For even the Christ did not please himself, but just as it is written, “The reproaches of those reproaching you have fallen upon me.”[112] For whatever was written in former days was written for our instruction, that through endurance and through the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope. Now may the God who gives endurance and comfort grant you to be of the same mind with one another according to Christ Jesus, so that with one mind you may glorify with one mouth the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Therefore accept one another, just as Christ also has accepted you, to the glory of God. For I say that Christ has become a servant to the circumcision on behalf of the truth of God to confirm the promises given to the fathers, and in order that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. As it is written,

“Therefore I will praise you among the Gentiles,
    and sing to your name.”[113]

10 And again it is said,

“Rejoice, O Gentiles, with his people.”[114]

11 And again,

“Praise the Lord, all the Gentiles,
    and let all the peoples praise him.”[115]

12 And again Isaiah says,

“There shall come the root of Jesse,

And he who arises to rule over the Gentiles,

In him shall the Gentiles hope.”[116]

13 Now may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, so that you will abound in hope by the power of the Holy Spirit.

Paul, a Servant to the Nations

14 I myself am satisfied about you, my brothers, that you yourselves are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge and able to instruct one another. 15 But I have written to you more boldly on some points, so as to remind you again because of the grace that has been given to me by God, 16 to be a minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles in the priestly service of the gospel of God, so that the offering of the Gentiles may be acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit. 17 Therefore I have a reason for boasting in Christ Jesus regarding the things pertaining to God. 18 For I will not dare to speak about anything except that which Christ has accomplished through me, resulting in the obedience of the Gentiles by word and deed, 19 by the power of signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit, so that from Jerusalem and traveling around as far as Illyricum I have fully proclaimed the gospel of Christ. 20 And so, having as my ambition to proclaim the gospel where Christ has not been named, so that I would not build on another man’s foundation; 21 but as it is written,

“Those who have never been told of him will see,
    and those who have never heard will understand.”[117]

Travel Plans of Paul

22 For this reason also I was many times hindered from coming to you; 23 but now I no longer have a place in these regions, and for many years I have longed to come to you, 24 whenever I journey to Spain, I hope that I will see you in passing and to be helped on my way there by you after I have first enjoyed your company for a time. 25 But now I am about to travel to Jerusalem to minister to the holy ones. 26 For Macedonia and Achaia have been pleased to make some contribution for the poor among the holy ones at Jerusalem. 27 Yes, they were pleased to do so, and they are indebted to them. For if the Gentiles have shared in their spiritual things, they are indebted to minister to them also in material things. 28 Therefore, when I have finished this, and have sealed to them this fruit,[118] I will go on by way of you to Spain. 29 I know that when I come to you, I will come in the fullness of the blessing of Christ.

30 Now I urge you, brothers, through our Lord Jesus Christ and through the love of the Spirit, that you exert yourselves with me in prayers to God for me, 31 that I may be delivered from the unbelievers in Judea, and that my service for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the holy ones; 32 so that I may come to you in joy by the will of God and find refreshing rest in your company. 33 Now the God of peace be with you all. Amen.


Paul Introduces Phoebe As a Minister

16 I commend to you our sister Phoebe, a minister of the congregation at Cenchreae, in order that you may welcome her in the Lord in a manner worthy of the holy ones, and help her in whatever task she may have need from you, for she herself also has been a helper of many, even me myself.

Greetings to the Roman Christians

Greet Prisca and Aquila, my fellow workers in Christ Jesus, who for my life risked their own necks, to whom not only do I give thanks, but also all the congregations of the Gentiles; also greet the church that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first convert to Christ from Asia. Greet Mary, who has worked hard for you. Greet Andronicus and Junias,[119] my kinsmen and my fellow prisoners, who are well known among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me. Greet Ampliatus, my beloved in the Lord. Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in Christ, and Stachys my beloved. 10 Greet Apelles, the approved in Christ. Greet those who are of the household of Aristobulus. 11 Greet Herodion, my kinsman. Greet those of the household of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. 12 Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, women who are working hard in the Lord. Greet Persis, our beloved one, for she has worked hard in the Lord. 13 Greet Rufus, a choice man in the Lord, also his mother and mine. 14 Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas and the brothers with them. 15 Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the holy ones who are with them. 16 Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the congregations of Christ greet you.

Warning Against Divisions

17 Now I urge you, brothers, to keep your eye on those who cause divisions and occasions of stumbling contrary to the teaching that you have learned and turn away from them. 18 For such men are slaves, not of our Lord Christ but of their own appetites; and by their smooth and flattering speech they deceive the hearts of the unsuspecting. 19 For the report of your obedience has reached to all; therefore I am rejoicing over you, but I want you to be wise in what is good and innocent in what is evil. 20 The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.

Greetings from Paul’s Coworkers

21 Timothy my fellow worker greets you, and so do Lucius and Jason and Sosipater, my kinsmen.

22 I, Tertius, who write this letter, greet you in the Lord.

23 Gaius, host to me and to the whole congregation, greets you. Erastus, the city treasurer greets you, and Quartus, the brother. 24 ——[120]

The Mystery Now Known

25 Now to him who is able to strengthen you according to my gospel and the proclaiming of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery that was kept secret for long ages, 26 but has now been disclosed and through the prophetic writings has been made known to all nations, according to the command of the eternal God, to bring about the obedience of faith; 27 to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, be the glory forever. Amen.

[1] Apostle: (ἀπόστολος apostolos) The basic sense of the word is a “messenger, representative,” or “sent one.” This was a special messenger or envoy of Jesus Christ. In the Greek NT, “apostolos” is used primarily concerning those who were taught directly by Jesus and who were given the authority to speak in his place, especially the twelve disciples that Jesus personally selected. Matthias was chosen to replace Judas Iscariot. Paul, a direct choice of the resurrected and ascended Jesus Christ, was also referred to as an apostle. – Matt 10:2; Mark 3:14; Ac 2:37; 14:14; Rom. 1:1; Heb. 3:1.

[2] That is, offspring

[3] Brothers: (ἀδελφός adelphos) This refers to male siblings. (Matt 4:18) It also refers to a group of persons, that is, fellow believers (male and female at times, Rom. 18:29), regardless of the masculine form. It can also refer to a fellow Jew (Ac 22:1); to fellow countryman (Ac 2:29), as well as one’s neighbor (Matt. 5:22)–Acts 1:15-16; 9:30; 11:1; Romans 1:13; 1 Corinthians 1:1, 10.

[4] Barbarian: (βάρβαρος barbaros) The repetition of the “bar bar” in the Greek originally convey the idea of a stammering, stuttering, babble, or any form of unintelligible sounds. Thus, the term “barbarian” was a term used by the Greeks, which referred to any foreigner, especially one who did not speak Greek, only later being viewed as uncivilized foreigners. Initially, there was no sense of hostility or contempt, and these non-Greeks were not offended by the term. It is similar to Gentile being used to refer to non-Jews. Eventually, a barbarian, any non-Greek, came to suggest one who was uncivilized. – Ac 28:2, 4; Rom. 1:14; 1 Cor. 14:11; Col. 3:11.

[5] A quotation from Hab 2:4

[6] Or in; or within

[7] Or reptiles

[8] Lit into the ages

[9] Or natural sexual relations; Lit natural use

[10] Or contentious

[11] Or for

[12] Transgression: (Heb. פֶּשַׁע pesha; Gr. παράβασις parabasis) Sin can take the form of a “transgression.” This is an overstepping, namely, to exceed a moral limit or boundary. Biblically speaking, this would be crossing the line and saying, feeling, thinking or doing something that is contrary to God’s personality, standards, ways, will and purposes, as set out in the Scriptures. It is breaking God’s moral law.–Num. 14:41; Deut. 17:2, 3; Josh. 7:11, 15; 1 Sam 15:24; Isa 24:5; Jer. 34:18; Rom. 2:23; 4:15; 5:14; Gal. 3:19; 1 Tim. 2:14; Heb. 2:2; 9:15.

[13] A quotation from Isa 52:5

[14] Lit uncircumcision

[15] Sayings: (Gr. λόγια logia [only in the plural]) A saying or message, usually short, especially divine, gathered into a collection.–Acts 7:38; Romans 3:2; Hebrews 5:12; 1 Peter 4:11.

[16] A quotation from Ps 51:4

[17] Sinner: (חָטָא chata ἁμαρτωλός hamartōlos) In the Scriptures “sinners” is generally used in a more specific way, that is, referring to those willfully living in sin, practicing sin, or have a reputation of sinning. – Matt. 9:10; Mark 2:15; Luke 5:30; 7:37-39; John 9:16; Rom. 3:7; Gal. 2:15; 1 Tim. 1:15; Heb. 7:26; Jam. 4:8; 1 Pet 4:18; Jude 1:15.

[18] Verses 10–12 are a quotation from Ps 14:1–3

[19] A quotation from Ps 5:9 and Ps 140:3

[20] A quotation from Ps 10:7

[21] Verses 15–17 are a quotation from Isa 59:7–8

[22] A quotation from Ps 36:1

[23] The Greek word (ἐπίγνωσις epignōsis) behind the English rendering accurate knowledge is a strengthened or intensified form of gnosis (epi, meaning “additional”), meaning “true,” “real,” “full,” “complete,” or “accurate,” depending upon the context. Paul and Peter alone use epignosis.

[24] Lit circumcision

[25] Lit out of

[26] Lit uncircumcision

[27] Lit out of

[28] Lit toward

[29] Believe, faith, Trust in: (πιστεύω pisteuō) If pisteuo is followed by the Greek preposition eis, (“into, in, among,” accusative case), it is generally rendered “trusting in” or “trust in.” (John 3:16, 36; 12:36; 14:1) The grammatical construction of the Greek verb pisteuo “believe” followed by the Greek preposition eis “into” in the accusative gives us the sense of having faith into Jesus, putting faith in, trusting in Jesus.–Matt. 21:25, 32; 27:42; John 1:7, 12; 2:23–24; 3:15-16, 36; 6:47; 11:25; 12:36; 14:1; 20:31; Acts 16:31; Rom. 4:3.

[30] Lit the circumcision

[31] Lit the uncircumcision

[32] Lit in circumcision

[33] Lit in uncircumcision

[34] Lit in circumcision

[35] Lit in uncircumcision

[36] Lit was in uncircumcision

[37] Lit was in uncircumcision

[38] Transgression: (Heb. פֶּשַׁע pesha; Gr. παράβασις parabasis) Sin can take the form of a “transgression.” This is an overstepping, namely, to exceed a moral limit or boundary. Biblically speaking, this would be crossing the line and saying, feeling, thinking or doing something that is contrary to God’s personality, standards, ways, will and purposes, as set out in the Scriptures. It is breaking God’s moral law.–Num. 14:41; Deut. 17:2, 3; Josh. 7:11, 15; 1 Sam 15:24; Isa 24:5; Jer. 34:18; Rom. 2:23; 4:15; 5:14; Gal. 3:19; 1 Tim. 2:14; Heb. 2:2; 9:15.

[39] A quotation from Gen 17:5

[40] A quotation from Gen 15:5

[41] Trespass: (παράπτωμα paraptōma) This is a sin that can come in the way of some desire (lusting), some thinking (entertaining a wrongdoing) or some action (carrying out one’s desires or thoughts that he or she has been entertaining) that is beyond or overstepping God’s righteous standards, as set out in the Scriptures. It is falling or making a false step as opposed to standing or walking upright in harmony with the righteous requirements of God. – Matt. 6:14; Mark 11:25; Rom. 4:25; 5:15-20; 11:11; 2 Cor. 5:19; Gal. 6:1; Eph. 1:7; 2:1, 5; Col 2:13.

[42] “Let us have peace with God” is the reading in four of the earliest manuscripts (א* A B* C), as well as (D L 33 1739*) Marcion. “We have peace with God” is found in two earliest manuscripts, as well as (א1 B2 F G P Ψ 0220vid 1739).

[43] Lit not as the trespass, so also the free gift

[44] Lit a declaring of righteous

[45] Body: (σῶμα sōma) The complete material structure or physical form of an organism, human being, or animal. (Mark 14:22; Lu 17:37; Rom. 8:23; 1 Cor. 12:12; 15:37; Phil. 3:21) There are also spiritual bodies, which are invisible to human eyes and completely beyond human senses. (1 Cor. 15:40, 44) The term “body” is also used symbolically. – Rom. 6:3-6; 1 Cor. 12:13; Gal. 3:28; Eph. 1:22-23; 2:16; 4:4; Col. 1:18.

[46] Or has been justified, acquitted

[47] Lit no longer dies

[48] Lit gracious gift; Gr kharisma

[49] Or alive

[50] Three early MSS (א A C) read because of

[51] Adoption: (υἱοθεσία huiothesia) The Greek noun is a legal term that literally means “adoption as a son,” which means taking or accepting a son or daughter who is not naturally such by relationship, including complete inheritance rights. The apostle Paul mentions adoption several times, referring to those with a new status as called and chosen by God. Born as offspring of the imperfect Adam, these were formerly in slavery to sin. Through purchase through Jesus’ life as a ransom, many have received the adoption as sons and daughters becoming heirs with the only-begotten Son of God, Jesus Christ. – Rom. 8:15, 23; 9:4; Gal. 4:5; Eph. 1:5.

[52] “Abba” means “father” in Aramaic

[53] Body: (σῶμα sōma) The complete material structure or physical form of an organism, human being, or animal. (Mark 14:22; Lu 17:37; Rom. 8:23; 1 Cor. 12:12; 15:37; Phil. 3:21) There are also spiritual bodies, which are invisible to human eyes and completely beyond human senses. (1 Cor. 15:40, 44) The term “body” is also used symbolically. – Rom. 6:3-6; 1 Cor. 12:13; Gal. 3:28; Eph. 1:22-23; 2:16; 4:4; Col. 1:18.

[54] Or foreordained

[55] Or foreordained

[56] A quotation from Ps 44:22

[57] That is, wish

[58] See 8:15fn.

[59] Or, an alternative reading, Christ, who is God over all, blessed forever.

[60] Lit seed

[61] A quotation from Gen 21:12

[62] Lit seed

[63] A quotation from Mal 1:2-3

[64] A quotation from Ex. 33:19

[65] A quotation from Ex. 9:16

[66] A quotation from Isa 29:16; 45:9

[67] A quotation from Hos 2:23

[68] A quotation from Hos 1:10

[69] Jehovah of armies: (יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֣וֹת Jehovah tsebaot) literally means an army of soldiers or military forces (Gen. 21:22; Deut. 20:9). The expression is found 285 times, with some deviations, in the Scriptures. The prophetic books, especially Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Zechariah, have the most occurrences. It is also used figuratively, “the sun and the moon and the stars, all the armies of heaven.” (Deut. 4:19) In the plural form, it is also used of the Israelites forces as well. (Ex. 6:26; 7:4; Num. 33:1; Psa. 44:9) However, the “armies” in the expression “Jehovah of armies” is a reference to the angelic forces primarily, if not exclusively. Paul and James, quoting from the Old Testament prophecies, used its equivalent (τὰ κυρίου σαβαὼθ ta kuriou sabaōth; “the Lord of armies”) in their writings. – Rom. 9:29; Jas 5:4; cf. Isa 1:9.

[70] Lit seed

[71] A quotation from Isa 1:9

[72] A quotation from Isa 28:16; 8:14

[73] The Greek word (ἐπίγνωσις epignōsis) behind the English rendering accurate knowledge is a strengthened or intensified form of gnosis (epi, meaning “additional”), meaning “true,” “real,” “full,” “complete,” or “accurate,” depending upon the context. Paul and Peter alone use epignosis.

[74]  A quotation from Lev 18:5

[75] Lit out of, from

[76] A quotation from Deut 9:4

[77] A quotation from Deut 30:12

[78] Abyss: (ἄβυσσος abussos) It is a very deep place, which is rendered “the bottomless pit” in some versions (KJV). This is found in the NT and refers to a place or condition, where Satan and his demons will be confined for a thousand years. (Rev. 20:1-3) Abaddon rules over the abyss (Rev. 9:11) The beast is of Satan’s design and will rise from the abyss in the last days. (Rev. 11:7) The beast will go off into destruction. (Rev 17:8) It is used at times to refer to the grave as well. – Lu 8:31; Rom. 10:7; Rev. 20:3.

[79] Or because

[80] Lit into righteousness

[81] Lit into salvation

[82] A quotation from Isa 28:16

[83] Quotation from Joel 2:32, which reads, “everyone who calls on the name of Jehovah shall be saved.” In other words, Paul was referring to the Father not the Son.

[84] Quotation from Isa 52:7; Nah 1:15

[85] Quotation from Isaiah 53:1, which reads, “Who has believed our message? And to whom has the arm of Jehovah been revealed?”

[86] A quotation from Deut 32:21

[87] Quotation from Isa 65:1, which reads, I have let myself be sought by those who did not ask for me;

    I let myself be found by those who did not seek me.

I said, ‘Here I am; here I am!’ to a nation that was not calling on my name.

[88] A quotation from Isa 65:2

[89] A quotation from 1 Kgs 19:10, 14

[90] Baal: (Heb. bǎʿǎl; Gr. Βάαλ) The Hebrew means “Owner; Master; Husband.” An ancient Canaanite god: a fertility or nature god, seen as the owner of the sky and giver of rains, worshiped by the Canaanites and the Phoenicians.– 1 Ki 18:21; Rom. 11:4.

[91] A quotation from Deut 29:4; Isa 29:10

[92] Stumble, fall away, to be offended: (σκανδαλίζω skandalizō) In Greek, “stumbling block” (skandalon) was originally a device or trap, which contained bait, to ensnare or catch something alive. (1 John 2:10) It is used in the Scriptures as a trap, obstacle, or snare that stumbles one into sinning. (Rom. 11:9; Matt. 13:41) It can also be used as an obstacle that causes offense, resulting in opposition. (1 Cor. 1:23; Gal. 5:11) The Greek, (skandalizomai) refers to one who ceases to believe because of tribulation. (Matt. 13:21) It can also refer to one who is spiritually weak, immature in the faith, resulting in their falling into sin. (2 Cor. 11:29) In addition, it can refer to one who takes offense to some action. (Matt. 15:12) It can refer to one who causes another no longer to believe (John 6:61) It can also refer to something or someone that causes another to sin because they are spiritually weak or immature in the faith. (Matt. 5:29; Rom. 14:21) It can refer to another who is angered or shocked by something or someone, which could result in their sinning. – Matt. 17:27; John 6:61.

[93] A quotation from Ps 69:22–23

[94] Lit root of the fatness

[95] Or and this is how all Israel will be saved; or and in this manner all Israel will be saved; or and in this way all Israel will be saved

[96] Or savior

[97] Quotation from Isa. 27:9; Jer. 31:33–34

[98] A quotation from Isa 40:13

[99] A quotation from Job 41:11

[100] Lit the reasonable (or rational, logical) service of you; i.e., true, genuine, or worship.

[101] Or well-pleasing

[102] Sound in Mind: (σωφρονέω sōphroneō) This means to be of sound mind or in one’s right mind, i.e., to have understanding about practical matters and thus be able to act sensibly, ‘to have sound judgment, to be sensible, to use good sense, sound judgment.’ – Acts 26:25; Romans 12:3; 2 Timothy 1:7; Titus 2:6; 1 Peter 4:7

[103] Or diligent

[104] That is, God’s wrath

[105] Or person

[106] Or established, instituted

[107] A quotation from Ex. 20:13-15, 17; Deut. 5:17-19, 21

[108] A quotation from Lev. 19:18

[109] Or time

[110] Or shall give praise

[111] Stumble, fall away, to be offended: (σκανδαλίζω skandalizō) In Greek, “stumbling block” (skandalon) was originally a device or trap, which contained bait, to ensnare or catch something alive. (1 John 2:10) It is used in the Scriptures as a trap, obstacle, or snare that stumbles one into sinning. (Rom. 11:9; Matt. 13:41) It can also be used as an obstacle that causes offense, resulting in opposition. (1 Cor. 1:23; Gal. 5:11) The Greek, (skandalizomai) refers to one who ceases to believe because of tribulation. (Matt. 13:21) It can also refer to one who is spiritually weak, immature in the faith, resulting in their falling into sin. (2 Cor. 11:29) In addition, it can refer to one who takes offense to some action. (Matt. 15:12) It can refer to one who causes another no longer to believe (John 6:61) It can also refer to something or someone that causes another to sin because they are spiritually weak or immature in the faith. (Matt. 5:29; Rom. 14:21) It can refer to another who is angered or shocked by something or someone, which could result in their sinning. – Matt. 17:27; John 6:61.

[112] A quotation from Ps 69:9

[113] A quotation from Ps 18:49

[114] A quotation from Deut 32:43

[115]  A quotation from Ps 117:1

[116] A quotation from Isa 11:10, which reads, “In that day the root of Jesse, who shall stand as a signal for the peoples, to him shall the nations inquire, and his resting place shall be glorious.”

[117] A quotation from Isa 52:15

[118] Having delivered this fruit as a contribution securely to them

[119] Junias received a special greeting from Paul at the end of his letter to the Romans. (16:7) Andronicus and Junias were his “kinsmen.” While the Greek word used here (συγγενής) can mean “a man from one’s own country,” “fellow countryman,” the primary meaning is blood relative, including the extended family,” of the same generation. The two were Paul’s “fellow prisoners,” meaning that they had been in prison with him somewhere. Paul calls them both “well known among the apostles,” perhaps remembering their fine reputation with the apostles. Note that it does not call Andronicus and Junias apostles but only says that they were well known among the apostles. The Greek term (episēmos), rendered well known, is a plural masculine adjective. Therefore, it could rightly be rendered “men who are well known among the apostles.”

[120] The earliest and best manuscripts (P46 P61 א A B C 1739 Itb cop) do not contain vs 24, while later witnesses (D Ψ Maj syrh) contain 16:24, “The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen,” with F G lacking Ιησου Χριστου [Jesus Christ]. This verse is the same as the end of vs 20. All modern translations do not include this verse because of the superior testimony against it.

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