Textual Criticism of the New Testament

Textual criticism of the New Testament is the identification of textual variants. or different versions of the New Testament, whose goals include identification of transcription errors, analysis of versions, and attempts to reconstruct the original text.

What Do We Know About the History of the Text of the Greek New Testament?

We have textual traditions, or families of texts, which grew up in a certain region. For example, we have the Alexandrian text-type, which Westcott and Hort called the Neutral text that came from Egypt. Then, there is the Western text-type, which came from Italy and Gaul as well as North Africa and elsewhere. There was also the Caesarean text-type, which came from Caesarea and is characterized by a mixture of Western and Alexandrian readings. The Byzantine text-type, also called the Majority Text, came from Constantinople (i.e., Byzantium).


Early on, some New Testament textual scholars pretty much mocked Westcott and Hort (WH) believing that they were overzealous, seeing it as bias too, at least until the 1950s. WH released their critical text in 1881, Hort said that Vaticanus preserved “not only a very ancient text but a very pure line of a very ancient text.” (Westcott and Hort 1882, 251) Later scholars argued that Vaticanus was a scholarly recension: a critical revision or edited text. However, …

CAN WE TRUST THE WESTCOTT AND HORT 1881 GREEK TEXT?: Were Westcott and Hort Occultist Unbelievers?

Almost ALL modern Bibles since 1881 are based on the Westcott and Hort Greek New Testament because the 2012 Nestlé Åland Greek New Testament is 99.5% the same as the Westcott and Hort 1881 Greek New Testament. Therefore, it must be asked, are ALL modern Bibles based on a text by Occultists or unbelievers? Before delving into whether Westcott and Hort were Occultists or unbelievers, let us look at their work first.

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