Papyrus 33 (P33) is a fourth/fifth-century manuscript of the Acts of the Apostles, containing only a portion of the text. Along with Papyrus 58, it formed part of a codex that contained a version of the Greek New Testament in the Alexandrian text-type. This chapter explores the significance of Papyrus 33 for the study of early Christianity and the textual history of the New Testament, and provides insight into its physical characteristics and current location at the Austrian National Library in Vienna.
The Similarities and Differences In Old and New Testament Textual Criticism
This article discusses the differences between textual criticism of the Old Testament and the New Testament, including methodology, terminology, and types of variants. It explores the various terms used in each discipline and the challenges they present for communication and classification. The article also examines the concept of a literary edition and the different approaches taken by scholars in producing critical editions of ancient texts.
OMISSIONS or ADDITIONS?: Why Are Thousands of Variant Readings Missing from the Modern Bible Translations?
The Byzantine text family that makes up the Textus Receptus, which is behind the KJV, and the NKJV is 80-85% in agreement with the Alexandrian text family that is behind almost all modern translations. The King James Version Onlyists (KJVOists) & the Textus Receptus Onlyists (TROists) call the differences omissions in the Westcott & Hort 1881 Greek New Testament (WH) and the Nestle-Aland 28th edition Greek New Testament (NA). They would argue that many of the differences are actually additions to the original texts, which have now been restored to their original form by removing spurious interpolations. Who is correct?
Textual Criticism of the New Testament
Textual criticism of the New Testament is the identification of textual variants. or different versions of the New Testament, whose goals include identification of transcription errors, analysis of versions, and attempts to reconstruct the original text.
PAPYRUS 45 (P45): THE FIRST OF THE CHESTER BEATTY BIBLICAL PAPYRI (c. 175-225)
Papyrus 45 P45 or P. Chester Beatty I) is an early New Testament manuscript that is a part of the Chester Beatty Papyri. It has been paleographically dated to about 175-225 CE. P45 is one of the oldest codices in the world that contains most of the four Gospels and much of the book of Acts.
Papyrus 52 (P52): The “Ambiguity and Uncertainty” of Modern-Day Evangelical Bible Scholars Redating Early Papyri
What are the churchgoers, the Bible college students, and seminary students to do when one Bible scholar says one thing and another Bible scholar says something entirely different, or worse still, as is the case with P52, several Bible scholars are saying other dates for the time when the Greek New Testament fragment P52 was written? P = Papyrus (a plant in Egypt), the material used to make sheets of papyrus paper written on by scribes to make copies of Bible books. 52 = the number assigned to that discovered manuscript. What makes it even more alarming is when one is not an expert in the field of study, only having basic knowledge. How can they possibly know who is correct? Worse still, the Christian is put in the embarrassing position on social media of telling an atheist that P52 is dated to 100-150 C.E., and then the atheist responds to the Christian with, ‘no your evidence from 1935 is outdated, as recent research points to a date of 200 C.E. or later.’ What is the Christian to do?
PAPYRUS 3 (P3 P. Vindob. 2323) Generally Alexandrian Text Type (4th Cent. C.E.)
Papyrus 3 is designated by the sign P3 in the numbering Gregory-Aland. It is a small fragment of fifteen verses from the Gospel of Luke (Luke 7:36-45; 10:38-42) dating to the 4th century.
Papyrus 4/64/67 (P4/P64/P67) Alexandrian Text Type (150-175 C.E.)
Textual Character: P4 is of the Alexandrian text-type and agrees with P75 and B 93 percent of the time. The copyist of P4 was likely a professional scribe. “P4 and P75 are identical in forty complete verses, with only five significant exceptions (Luke 3:22, 36; 5:39; 6:11, 14).”
Papyrus 1 (P1) Matthew 1:1-9, 12, 14-20 Alexandrian Text Type (c. 175-225 C.E.)
Papyrus 1 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering) designated by "P1", "ε 01 (von Soden)", is an early copy of the New Testament in Greek. It is a papyrus manuscript of the Gospel of Matthew dating palaeographically to the middle of the 3rd century (c. 175 - 225 C.E.).
Alexandrian Text-Type of Greek New Testament Manuscripts
The Alexandrian text ... is usually considered to be the best text and the most faithful in preserving the original. Characteristics of the Alexandrian text are brevity and austerity. That is, it is generally shorter than the text of other forms, and it does not exhibit the degree of grammatical and stylistic polishing that is characteristic of the Byzantine type of text (Bruce M. Metzger)