The Reign of King Ahab: A Time of Apostasy and Decline in Israel

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Dive into the multifaceted reign of King Ahab of Israel, marked by both prosperity and apostasy. This article delves into Ahab’s marriage to Jezebel, the influence of Baal worship, his confrontations with the prophet Elijah, and his superficial repentance. Explore the intricacies of Ahab’s rule and the valuable spiritual insights gleaned from his complex relationship with Jehovah as we also delve into the historical and archaeological evidence.

King Ahab of Israel: A Rule Marred by Apostasy and False Worship

King Ahab, the son of Omri, ruled over the northern kingdom of Israel in Samaria for 22 years, from approximately 874-853 B.C.E. (1 Ki 16:28, 29).

Widespread Promotion of False Worship

Under Ahab’s rule, the perversion of true worship reached one of its lowest points in Israelite history. Not only did the corrupted worship of Jehovah through Jeroboam’s golden calves persist, but Ahab’s early marriage to Jezebel, the daughter of Ethbaal (or Ithobal), king of Sidon, allowed Baal worship to spread throughout Israel like never before. Ethbaal was formerly a priest of Astarte who ascended to the throne through regicide (the action of killing a king).

Ahab’s pagan wife, Jezebel, influenced him to embrace Baal worship, erecting a temple for Baal and a sacred pole to honor Asherah (1 Ki 16:30-33). This led to the prominence of 450 prophets of Baal and 400 prophets of the sacred pole, all supported by Jezebel’s royal patronage (1 Ki 18:19). True prophets of Jehovah were persecuted and slain, and only through the faithful intervention of Ahab’s house manager Obadiah were 100 prophets saved, concealed in caves and sustained by bread and water (1 Ki 18:3, 4, 13; 19:10).

Consequences of Baal Worship and the Triumph of Jehovah

Ahab’s turn to Baal worship prompted the prophet Elijah to foretell a severe drought that lasted three years and six months, as mentioned in Luke 4:25 and James 5:17 (1 Ki 17:1; 18:1). The rains would return only at Elijah’s word, and despite Ahab’s extensive search, Elijah remained hidden until the appointed time (1 Ki 17:8, 9; 18:2, 10). Ahab attempted to blame Elijah for the drought and famine, but Elijah refuted this, highlighting Baal worship as the true cause.

The subsequent confrontation on Mount Carmel established Jehovah as the true God, demonstrating Baal’s impotence. At Elijah’s command, the prophets of Baal were slain, followed by a refreshing downpour that ended the drought (1 Ki 18:17-46). Ahab returned to Jezreel and reported to Jezebel Elijah’s decisive actions against Baalism. Her furious response sparked Elijah’s flight to Mount Horeb (1 Ki 19:1-8).

Architectural Achievements and Military Engagements with Syria

Ahab’s reign is believed to have been marked by significant construction efforts, including the completion of Samaria’s fortifications. Archaeological evidence reveals that these fortifications were composed of three immensely robust walls, meticulously crafted. Excavations have also uncovered a rectangular palace platform measuring around 90 m (295 ft) by 180 m (590 ft), enclosed by a wall of refined ashlar masonry. Additionally, several ivory panels were discovered, likely used in decorating furniture and wall panels, possibly relating to Ahab’s “house of ivory” mentioned in 1 Kings 22:39 (Compare Am 3:15; 6:4).

Samaria’s wealth and fortified position were soon challenged by a siege led by the Syrian Ben-hadad II, who headed a coalition of 32 kings. Initially acquiescing to Ben-hadad’s demands, Ahab later resisted, refusing to allow the unimpeded plundering of his palace. After peace negotiations broke down, Ahab, guided by divine direction, employed a tactical maneuver that surprised the enemy and resulted in their defeat, though Ben-hadad managed to escape (1 Ki 20:1-21).

Believing that Jehovah’s power was confined to the mountains, Ben-hadad returned the next year with an equally formidable force, arranging his troops on the flat terrain near Aphek, within Manasseh’s territory. The Israelite army, in comparison to the vast Syrian camp, resembled “two tiny flocks of goats.” Receiving assurance from Jehovah that His might was not limited by geography, Ahab’s forces inflicted a devastating defeat on the Syrians (1 Ki 20:26-30). However, much like King Saul’s handling of Agag the Amalekite, Ahab spared Ben-hadad’s life. He subsequently made a covenant with Ben-hadad, agreeing to the restoration of captured cities to Israel and the allocation of streets in Damascus for commercial bazaars to enhance Ahab’s trading interests in the Syrian capital (1 Ki 20:31-34). This act, akin to Saul’s error, led to Jehovah’s condemnation of Ahab, with a prophecy of future disaster for him and his people (1 Ki 20:35-43).

How to Interpret the Bible-1

Naboth’s Vineyard and the Ensuing Consequences

During a period of peace that lasted three years, King Ahab focused on acquiring Naboth of Jezreel’s vineyard, a property adjacent to his palace in Jezreel that caught his fancy. Naboth’s refusal to sell, based on the divine law prohibiting the transfer of hereditary lands, sent Ahab into a sullen mood, lying on his couch and refusing food. Jezebel, his pagan wife, learning of his dissatisfaction, orchestrated Naboth’s execution under the pretense of a trial for blasphemy, utilizing letters written in Ahab’s name. When Ahab arrived to claim the land, Elijah confronted him, fiercely condemning him for his murderous act and accusing him of succumbing to wickedness under his pagan wife’s influence. Elijah’s words, foretelling that dogs would consume Ahab’s blood as they had Naboth’s, and that Jezebel and Ahab’s descendants would be devoured by dogs and scavenging birds, struck Ahab profoundly. He fasted and wore sackcloth in deep sorrow, pacing in despair. Due to his grief, a degree of mercy was shown regarding the timing of the predicted disaster on his house (1 Ki 21:1-29).

Ahab’s Alliances and His Death

Ahab’s relationship with the southern kingdom of Judah was bolstered through the marriage of his daughter Athaliah to King Jehoshaphat’s son Jehoram (1 Ki 22:44; 2 Ki 8:18, 26; 2 Ch 18:1). During a cordial visit by Jehoshaphat to Samaria, Ahab persuaded him to join forces to recapture Ramoth-gilead from the Syrians, who had evidently violated the terms of their covenant with Ben-hadad. Although a group of false prophets assured victory, the prophet Micaiah, despised by Ahab, was summoned at Jehoshaphat’s insistence and predicted certain defeat. Ahab, ignoring the warning and ordering Micaiah’s arrest, proceeded with the battle, disguising himself for protection. A stray arrow struck him, leading to his slow death. His body was taken to Samaria for burial, and as his war chariot was being washed by the pool of Samaria, dogs were seen licking his blood. Archaeological findings in the northwest corner of the palace courtyard in Samaria may indicate the site of this prophetic fulfillment (1 Ki 22:1-38).

The Kurkh Monolith of Shalmaneser III

Moabite and Assyrian References During Ahab’s Reign

Rebuilding of Jericho and Influence over Moab

King Ahab’s reign witnessed the rebuilding of Jericho, possibly part of a strategy to strengthen Israel’s dominance over Moab (1Ki 16:34; compare 2Ch 28:15). The Moabite Stone by King Mesha of Moab confirms the subjugation of Moab under King Omri and his son, Ahab.

Assyrian Records and the Controversy Over Identification

The battle between Shalmaneser III and a coalition of 12 kings at Qarqar in the Assyrian inscriptions includes a name, A-ha-ab-bu. Many scholars generally interpret this as referring to King Ahab of Israel, though evidence raises doubts regarding this claim.

Kurkh Monolith’s Reference to Ahab

A clear reference to Ahab appears in the Kurkh Monolith, found near Kurkh, Turkey. This limestone stela describes the first six years of Shalmaneser III (858–824 BCE), including the Battle of Qarqar in 853 BCE, where Shalmaneser defeated a coalition including “2,000 chariots, 10,000 soldiers of Ahab of Israel” (COS 2:263). This monument, likely erected in 853–852 BCE, resides in the British Museum.

Monolith Inscription of Shalmaneser III and Doubts Concerning Ahab’s Involvement

The main source for Shalmaneser III’s inscription involving Ahab is the Monolith Inscription, which was found in Kurkh, Turkey. This inscription records Shalmaneser’s military campaigns, including his victory over a coalition of forces led by Hadadezer of Aram and including Ahab of Israel.

The Monolith Inscription is dated to 859 BCE and is written in Akkadian, the language of Assyria. The inscription is over 100 lines long and divided into two parts. The first part describes Shalmaneser’s victories over the Babylonians, the Elamites, and the Medes. The second part describes his victory over the coalition of forces led by Hadadezer.

The relevant passage from the Monolith Inscription reads as follows:

  1. In the same year, I crossed the Euphrates and marched against Hadadezer of Aram-Damascus, who had mustered a great army and had come out to meet me. He had with him Ahab, the son of Omri, the king of Israel, and other kings and princes.

  2. I defeated them and inflicted a great defeat upon them. I took 12,000 of their chariots, 10,000 of their horses, and 200,000 of their soldiers prisoner. I pursued them as far as the city of Qarqar, and I took the city.

The Monolith Inscription is not the only source for Shalmaneser III’s inscription involving Ahab. There are also several other inscriptions that mention this event, including the Black Obelisk and the Taylor Prism. These inscriptions provide additional details about the battle, such as the number of troops involved and the names of the other kings who were present.

The inscriptions of Shalmaneser III provide valuable information about the reign of Ahab. They show that Ahab was a powerful king who was involved in a number of military conflicts. They also show that Ahab was a vassal of Assyria and that he was required to pay tribute to Shalmaneser III.

The inscriptions of Shalmaneser III are not without their limitations. They are written from an Assyrian perspective, and they may not be entirely accurate. However, they provide an important source of information about Ahab and his reign.

Shalmaneser III’s description of the battle of Qarqar involves the name A-ha-ab-bu matSir-ʼi-la-a-a, often translated as “Ahab the Israelite.” Despite apparent similarities, doubts persist concerning this identification with Ahab of Israel. Older scholarly opinions were not as unanimous, and the translation itself has been subject to question. Additionally, Assyrian inscriptions of the time use different terms for the northern kingdom of Israel.

Shalmaneser’s 18th-year record contradicts Biblical chronology, indicating a battle against Hazael and tribute from Jehu, son of Omri, around 12 years after Qarqar. This does not fit the Bible’s timeline, which includes an intervening period of additional years between Ahab’s death and Jehu’s reign.

The large force attributed to A-ha-ab-bu in Shalmaneser’s inscription, “2,000 chariots,” is inconsistent with Israel’s military capability, especially when Solomon, a more powerful king, had only 1,400 chariots (1Ki 10:26).

In view of these facts, it seems possible that the translation of A-ha-ab-bu matSir-ʼi-la-a-a as “Ahab the Israelite” might be incorrect. The decipherers might have been overly eager to associate the name with a known historical figure.

The main leaders against Shalmaneser III at Qarqar were King Adad-idri of Damascus and King Irhuleni of Hamath. Although Shalmaneser claimed a great victory, the results were not decisive enough for further Assyrian advancement westward, leading to additional battles against Adad-idri of Damascus in subsequent years.

The Jezreel Valley, the Stage for the Final Battle

Exploration at the Site of Ancient Jezreel

For countless generations, the location of the Biblical city of Jezreel has remained in ruins. Once significant in the history of the Scriptures, its grandeur has long since vanished, leaving behind a tell, or mound, that is hidden beneath layers of soil. Recently, scholars and archaeologists have taken interest in uncovering the site. What do the remains of Jezreel tell us concerning the Biblical narratives?

Jezreel’s Biblical Significance

Located in the eastern part of the Jezreel Valley, the city of Jezreel was found in one of the ancient lands of Israel’s most fertile regions. Across the valley to the north is the hill of Moreh, where the Midianites once gathered to plan an attack against Judge Gideon and his forces. Slightly to the east lies the well of Harod, near Mount Gilboa. It was here that Jehovah thinned Gideon’s vast army down to just 300 men, displaying His power to save His people without a formidable military. (Judges 7:1-25; Zechariah 4:6) Saul, Israel’s first king, met defeat by the Philistines on Mount Gilboa, where a dramatic battle led to the deaths of three of Saul’s sons and his own suicide.—1 Samuel 31:1-5.

The Scriptures paint a vivid picture of Jezreel, highlighting both the abuse and apostasy of Israel’s rulers as well as the faithfulness and zeal of Jehovah’s servants. King Ahab, ruler of Israel’s northern ten tribes during the early part of the ninth century B.C.E. (874-853), established his royal residence in Jezreel, even though Samaria was the official capital. (1 Kings 21:1) In Jezreel, the prophet Elijah faced death threats from Ahab’s foreign wife, Jezebel, after he courageously put to death the prophets of Baal following his test of the true God on Mount Carmel.—1 Kings 18:36–19:2.

In this city, the crime of murdering Naboth the Jezreelite occurred. King Ahab had desired Naboth’s vineyard, but when Naboth refused the king’s request, saying, “Jehovah forbid that I should give you the inheritance of my fathers,” Ahab became displeased. Seeing this, Queen Jezebel orchestrated a sham trial against Naboth, leading to his execution and Ahab’s seizure of the vineyard.—1 Kings 21:1-16.

Following this evil act, Elijah foretold the punishment: “The very dogs will eat up Jezebel in the plot of land of Jezreel.” He also announced that the dogs would devour any of Ahab’s descendants who died in the city, condemning Ahab’s wicked actions. However, when Ahab showed remorse, Jehovah determined that the punishment would not happen during Ahab’s lifetime. (1 Kings 21:23-29) The Scriptures continue by describing how Jehu, anointed as king of Israel, entered Jezreel, ordering Jezebel to be cast from her palace window to be trampled by horses. Scavenger dogs later consumed her body, leaving only her skull, feet, and hands. (2 Kings 9:30-37) Jezreel’s final Biblical connection is seen in the execution of 70 of Ahab’s sons, their heads piled at the city gate by Jehu, who also killed other leaders and priests of Ahab’s unfaithful reign.—2 Kings 10:6-11.

What Has Been Uncovered at Jezreel?

In 1990, the excavation of the site of Jezreel commenced as a combined venture involving the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University, represented by David Ussishkin, and the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem, represented by John Woodhead. Spanning seven seasons from 1990 to 1996, each lasting six weeks, the project engaged between 80 and 100 volunteers.

Archaeologists endeavor to scrutinize evidence at a site impartially without aligning with preexisting notions or theories. Even in lands connected to the Bible, the Scriptural account does not solely dictate the interpretation. All available sources and physical evidence must be meticulously evaluated. However, since there is no ancient written evidence concerning Jezreel aside from some chapters in the Scriptures, the Biblical records and chronology should be incorporated into any inquiry. What have the archaeological explorations brought to light?

From the outset, as walls and pottery were discovered, it became evident that the ruins dated back to the so-called Iron Age, correlating them with the Biblical Jezreel. As the excavation advanced, numerous surprises were unveiled. The initial shock was the site’s substantial size and imposing fortifications. Though the archaeologists anticipated fortifications akin to those of ancient Samaria, Israel’s capital city, they realized that Jezreel was significantly larger. Enclosing an area of 1,000 feet [300 m] by 500 feet [150 m], it exceeded three times the space within the fortifications of any other city from that era in Israel. A dry moat surrounded the city, causing a 35-foot [11 m] descent from the walls, a feature Professor Ussishkin found unprecedented in Biblical times. He remarked that no similar structure could be found in Israel until the Crusaders’ period.

Another unforeseen aspect was the lack of extensive buildings in the city center. Large quantities of reddish-brown soil used during construction had been utilized to form an elevated level surface—a sort of grand raised podium or platform—inside the enclosure. The Second Preliminary Report on the excavations at Tel Jezreel posits that this conspicuous podium may indicate that Jezreel was not just a royal residence but possibly the central military base for the royal Israelite army during the Omride kings’ time, housing and training the royal chariotry and cavalry. Considering the size of both the raised podium and the enclosure, Woodhead hypothesizes that this might have been a space for displaying the Middle East’s largest chariot force at that time.

The excavated remnants of the city gate are of particular interest, revealing an entrance of at least four chambers. Since many stones at the site have been plundered through the centuries, the findings are not definite. Woodhead believes that the remains suggest a six-chambered gate, analogous to those discovered at Megiddo, Hazor, and Gezer.

The excavations also hint at an unexpectedly brief existence for a city with such an ideal military and geographical location. Emphasizing Jezreel’s nature as a great fortified city in use for just a few decades, Woodhead contrasts it with other vital Biblical sites in Israel that underwent continuous rebuilding and habitation. He theorizes that the rapid decline may have stemmed from Ahab’s near economic ruin through excessive spending, evidenced by Jezreel’s size and strength. The subsequent regime under Jehu likely wished to sever ties with Ahab’s legacy, resulting in the city’s abandonment.

The evidence unearthed thus confirms Jezreel’s role as a significant Israelite hub during the Iron Age. Its dimensions and fortifications align with the Biblical depiction as the prime royal residence for Ahab and Jezebel. Moreover, signs of its short-lived occupation harmonize with the Biblical accounts of Jezreel: a city that swiftly gained prominence in Ahab’s reign and then, following Jehovah’s directive, was disgracefully brought down when Jehu eradicated all that remained of Ahab’s house in Jezreel, as detailed in 2 Kings 10:11.

The Dating of Jezreel

John Woodhead openly concedes, “It’s so difficult in archaeology to get an exact anchor for dating.” As a result, the chronology of Jezreel, derived from seven years of excavations, is being assessed alongside discoveries from other archaeological sites, leading to reevaluation and discussions. The root of this debate lies in the 1960s and early 1970s when Israeli archaeologist Yigael Yadin’s excavations at Megiddo led many in the archaeological community to believe that he had unearthed fortifications and city gates from King Solomon’s era. The findings at Jezreel, particularly the fortifications, pottery, and gates, have prompted some to question these long-held conclusions.

Take, for example, the pottery from Jezreel. It is identical to that of the layer at Megiddo that Yadin attributed to Solomon’s reign. Moreover, the gate structure and dimensions between the two sites are similar, if not identical. Woodhead comments on the matter, stating, “All the evidence either puts the Jezreel site back to the Solomonic period or lowers the dating of these features at the other sites [Megiddo and Hazor] to the period of Ahab.” Since the Scriptures clearly associate the site of Jezreel with Ahab’s reign, Woodhead considers it more logical to interpret these layers as reflecting Ahab’s rule. David Ussishkin lends support to this view, noting, “The Bible says that Solomon built up Megiddo—it doesn’t say that he built those exact gates.”

Is the History of Jezreel Knowable?

The archaeological findings at Jezreel and the debates they have sparked may raise questions, but do they challenge the Biblical accounts of Jezreel or Solomon? In truth, the archaeological discussions don’t directly challenge the Bible’s narrative. Archaeology approaches history from a different angle than the Biblical record, asking different questions and emphasizing different aspects. The relationship between a Bible scholar and an archaeologist might be likened to two travelers on roughly parallel paths, one driving on the street, the other walking on the sidewalk. Though their focus and concerns differ, their views often align more than they diverge. Contrasting these two perspectives can lead to captivating insights.

While the Bible provides a detailed written history of ancient events and figures, archaeology seeks to unearth information about these same subjects by investigating the remnants left behind in the earth. However, these remnants are usually fragmentary and subject to a variety of interpretations. Concerning this, Amihai Mazar notes in his book Archaeology of the Land of the Bible—10,000−586 B.C.E.: “Archaeological field work . . . is to a great extent an art as well as a combination of training and professional skill. No rigid methodology can ensure success and flexibility and creative thought by field directors are mandatory. The character, talent, and common sense of the archaeologist are no less important than his training and the resources available to him.”

The archaeological work has validated the existence of a significant royal and military hub at Jezreel, existing briefly during the era that aligns with Ahab’s rule, precisely as recorded in the Scriptures. Numerous other intriguing questions have been raised, which archaeologists might continue to explore for years. Yet, the words of Jehovah’s Scripture persist in speaking with distinctness, offering a complete narrative in ways that archaeology alone cannot. Nonetheless, annual archaeological discoveries continue to illuminate Biblical history and even augment its details.

Aerial view showing stone-covered plaza scheduled for future excavation to access the passageway with the corbelled vault, Tel Shimron.
(photo credit: (EYECON)

Archaeological Discovery of a 3,800-Year-Old Vaulted Passageway in Jezreel Valley

An artifact discovered at the entrance to the passage facilitated dating it to the Middle Bronze Age.

In the Jezreel Valley in northern Israel, archaeologists working at the Tel Shimron excavations have unearthed a rare and superbly intact vaulted passageway dating back approximately 3,800 years. This extraordinary discovery is the first known use of a corbelled mudbrick vault in a passageway in the southern Levant. It serves as an essential missing piece in understanding the evolution of the arch in this region, states excavation co-director Daniel Master.

Jewish history is considered to have commenced roughly 4,300 years ago (the 20th century B.C.E.) with the patriarchs – Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

  • 2056 BC: Birth of Abram (later named Abraham), Nahor, and Haran, the sons of Terah (Genesis 11:26).
  • 1921 BC: God makes a covenant with Abram and promises to make a great nation of him. In response to God’s command, Abram leaves Haran and goes to the land of Canaan at the age of 75 (Genesis 12:1-4).

Master further explained that the vault serves as “an ancestor to the mudbrick radial arch in the gate at Tel Dan” and stands as an “extraordinary example of Mesopotamian mudbrick technology.”

In architectural terms, a corbel is a supporting element, often made of stone, wood, or metal, protruding from a wall to bear an overhanging weight, functioning like a bracket. This technique involves the layering of bricks, each level stepping inward to form a gradually narrowing roof. It is a method often found in Mesopotamian sites. However, this is the first instance of such mudbrick construction being discovered in a passageway in the southern Levant. This discovery is both rare and significant, showcasing the interconnections across the fertile crescent.

At Tel Shimron’s ancient city’s southern acropolis, the archaeological team excavated a tower containing over 9,000 well-preserved mudbricks, standing more than five meters in height. The structure’s center housed a narrow corridor leading to a two-meter-long vaulted mudbrick passage, descending into the city via mudbrick stairs. The passageway features a corbelled roof constructed of unfired brick decorated with white chalk stripes.

Mudbrick stairs within the passageway are blocked by intentional gravel backfill and large boulders, Tel Shimron. (credit: EYECON)

The Tel Shimron Vaulted Passageway

MARIO MARTIN, the co-director of the Master’s excavation, explained that the use of corbelling can be found on small tomb cysts in various Middle Bronze Age sites, both in Canaan and the Egyptian Delta. However, he emphasized, “a fully preserved mudbrick-built passageway with this type of corbelled vault is unparalleled. Such structures, made of unfired mudbrick, almost never survive.”

At the passage’s entrance, the archaeologists discovered an intact Middle Bronze Age vessel lying among ashy remains. This complete artifact, known as a “Nahariya Bowl,” is a seven-cupped offering vessel named after the northern Israeli site where it was first found in a cultic setting. This discovery aids in dating the tower complex to the Middle Bronze Age, corresponding to the era when the kingdom of Tel Shimron (ancient Sham-anu) was influential enough to gain the Egyptians’ attention.

The tower complex constituted part of the royal acropolis. The tower itself, with its sophisticated brickwork, is representative of the immense fortifications and elite structures typical of the large Bronze Age cities, akin to buildings revealed in elite regions at Mesopotamian cities like Mari and Ur. Approximately 500 square meters of the acropolis have been unearthed by the excavators, with stone foundations and mudbrick constructions raising the entire precinct by over four meters.

Artifact at the Scene Assists Archaeologists in Dating the Passageway

The Tel Shimron passageway was deliberately filled shortly after its creation, preserving the vault and mudbrick stairs in nearly perfect condition. The entire vaulted passageway remains intact, although large stones block the path beyond the brick tower’s edge. By the close of the 2023 Tel Shimron summer excavation season, the passage was backfilled to shield the fragile mudbrick from environmental harm. In upcoming excavation seasons, the archaeologists intend to clear the passageway from the opposite side to discover its final destination.

Overview of Tel Shimron

The Tel Shimron mound is a vast ruin dominating northern Israel’s Jezreel Valley, positioned along the ancient trade routes leading from the Mediterranean to the Arabian Desert. Mentioned in Egyptian texts from the early second millennium B.C.E., the ancient city continues to be cited in various later texts, including the Hebrew Bible and the Mishna.

Until 2016, Tel Shimron remained largely unexplored, its extensive multi-period history hidden. Over the past seven years, the team led by Master and Martin has begun to uncover this northern Israel history. Five excavation seasons have already revealed a fortified Canaanite city (1850-1200 B.C.E.), remnants of the Israelite city from the First Temple period (destroyed by Assyria in 722 B.C.E.), and a Jewish village from the early Common Era centuries.

The Tel Shimron excavation team, comprising leading experts from Israel, the US, and Europe, collaborates with Tel Aviv University’s Institute of Archaeology and Wheaton College in Illinois. Licensed by the Israel Antiquities Authority and INPA, the excavation, supported by US sponsors, aims to comprehend the ancient world, including the Biblical world, through strict archaeological research, contributing to Levantine history and culture studies over the last five thousand years.

“Tel Shimron National Park is a time capsule capturing 5,000 years of enthralling history in the Jezreel Valley, renowned as one of the most notable tels in Israel,” remarked Dr. Dror Ben Yosef, INPA’s northern region archaeologist. INPA actively supports and aids the continuous expedition in their archaeological excavations at the site. They stay deeply engaged with the research findings, which consistently produce surprises, and aim to maintain Tel Shimron as a publicly accessible site, embracing heritage, nature, and landscape values.

King Ahab’s Repentance: Insights and Lessons

Ahab, the seventh king of the ten-tribe kingdom of Israel, took Jezebel, the king of Sidon’s daughter, as his wife. Sidon, a wealthy northern nation, may have brought affluence into Israel through this union. However, it also contributed to the deterioration of Israel’s relationship with Jehovah, as Jezebel was a practitioner of Baal worship. She influenced Ahab to endorse this abhorrent religion, known for its involvement in temple prostitution and even child sacrifice. Jezebel’s power left no prophet of Jehovah safe, as many were executed at her command. (1 Ki. 18:13) Scripture records that Ahab “did evil in the sight of Jehovah, more than all who were before him.” (1 Ki. 16:30) Jehovah’s awareness of Ahab and Jezebel’s actions led Him to mercifully send the prophet Elijah to call His people to repentance. Ahab and Jezebel, however, dismissed the warning.

Jehovah’s patience eventually wore thin, and He commanded Elijah to declare judgment on Ahab and Jezebel, decreeing the extinction of their entire family line. Elijah’s message profoundly impacted Ahab, leading him to “humble himself.” (1 Ki. 21:19-29)

Despite this moment of humility, Ahab’s subsequent behavior revealed an absence of genuine repentance. He made no effort to eradicate Baal worship or advance the worship of Jehovah in his kingdom, manifesting his lack of true repentance in various ways.

Later on, when Ahab requested King Jehoshaphat of Judah’s assistance in warring against the Syrians, Jehoshaphat urged they first seek counsel from a prophet of Jehovah. Ahab’s reluctance was evident as he complained about the prophet Micaiah, whom he despised for consistently prophesying evil against him. They eventually consulted Micaiah, who indeed predicted misfortune for Ahab. Rather than seeking Jehovah’s forgiveness with a repentant heart, Ahab responded maliciously by imprisoning the prophet. (1 Ki. 22:7-9, 23, 27) This imprisonment, however, did not avert the prophecy’s fulfillment, and Ahab met his death in the ensuing battle. (1 Ki. 22:34-38)


Jehovah’s perspective on him was conveyed upon Ahab’s death through the prophet Jehu’s rebuke of King Jehoshaphat for allying himself with such a wicked man. The prophet’s words indicated Ahab’s unrepentant nature, stating, “Should you help the wicked and love those who hate Jehovah? Because of this, wrath has gone out against you from Jehovah.” (2 Chron. 19:1, 2) It became clear that although Ahab displayed some regret, he never fully repented.

The account of Ahab’s life offers valuable insights. His initial humility in response to Elijah’s proclamation was commendable, but his subsequent actions betrayed a lack of repentance at heart. Thus, the story illustrates that genuine repentance must go beyond a temporary expression of remorse, reflecting a fundamental change in one’s relationship with Jehovah.

About the Author

EDWARD D. ANDREWS (AS in Criminal Justice, BS in Religion, MA in Biblical Studies, and MDiv in Theology) is CEO and President of Christian Publishing House. He has authored over 220+ books. In addition, Andrews is the Chief Translator of the Updated American Standard Version (UASV).


Primary Sources:

    • The Bible (Updated American Standard Version): The Books of Kings and Chronicles provide the most comprehensive accounts of Ahab’s reign.
    • The Tel Dan Stele: This 9th-century BCE inscription mentions Ahab and his son, Jehoram, in a context that suggests that they were enemies of the Arameans.
    • The Mesha Stele: This 9th-century BCE inscription mentions Ahab in a context that suggests that he was a conqueror of Moab.
    • Siegel-Itzkovich, Judy. “Archaeologists uncover 3,800-year-old vaulted passageway in Jezreel Valley.” The Jerusalem Post, August 17, 2023.

Secondary Sources:

      • Gugler, Klaus. Jehu und seine Revolution. Kampen: Kok Pharos, 1996. This book provides a detailed analysis of the biblical account of Ahab’s reign and the Jehu revolution.
      • Rollston, Chris A. Writing and Literacy in the World of Ancient Israel: Epigraphic Evidence from the Iron Age. Society of Biblical Lit., 2010. This book discusses the epigraphic evidence for Ahab’s reign, including the Tel Dan Stele and the Mesha Stele.
      • Na’aman, Nadav. “The Reign of Ahab: The Sources and the Problems.” In Ahab Agonistes: The Sources and the Debate, edited by Nadav Na’aman, 1-30. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006. This article provides a critical analysis of the biblical and archaeological sources for Ahab’s reign.
      • Finkelstein, Israel, and Neil Asher Silberman. The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts. New York: Free Press, 2001. This book discusses the archaeological evidence for Ahab’s reign, including the site of ancient Jezreel.
      • Pritchard, James B., ed. “Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament.” Princeton University Press, 1969, pp. 279-280, 284-285. (This work would provide translations of ancient texts relevant to King Ahab’s era.)
      • Hastings, James, ed. “Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible.” T&T Clark, 1904, Vol. I, p. 53. (A respected reference work that provides information on various biblical topics, including King Ahab.)
      • The Encyclopedia Americana.” 1956, Vol. I, p. 269. (An encyclopedic source that could offer general historical background on Ahab’s reign and the period.)
      • Grayson, A.K. “Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Volume II: From Tiglath-Pileser I to Ashur-nasir-apli II.” Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1976. (This volume contains important Assyrian royal inscriptions, including those of Shalmaneser III.)
      • Yamada, Shigeo. “The Construction of the Assyrian Empire: A Historical Study of the Inscriptions of Shalmaneser III (859-824 B.C.) Relating to His Campaigns to the West.” Leiden: Brill, 2000. (A specific study of Shalmaneser III’s western campaigns, including references to Ahab.)




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