Who Wrote the Pentateuch (Genesis-Deuteronomy) and When was It Written?

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Mosaic Authorship HOW RELIABLE ARE THE GOSPELS
Daniel Isaac Block (D.Phil., School of Archaeology and Oriental Studies, University of Liverpool) is a Canadian/American Old Testament scholar.

Although Jewish and Christian tradition almost unanimously recognize Moses as author of the Pentateuch, few issues relating to the OT now are debated as hotly, and in few issues is the gulf between critical and evangelical scholarship so wide. Many conservative scholars continue to believe that Moses wrote virtually all of the Pentateuch with his own hand. So long as critical scholars recognized Moses as an historical figure, in principle his involvement in the composition of the Pentateuch was not excluded—unless, of course he was thought to be illiterate. However, from the middle of the nineteenth century a.d., especially following Julius Wellhausen, most critical scholars have rejected Moses having a significant role in the origin of the Pentateuch.

The questioning began early with doubts whether Moses recorded his own death and burial (Dt 34), knew of a place in northern Israel called Dan (Gn 14:14; cp. Jos 19:47; Jdg 18:28–29), or referred to the conquest of Canaan as having occurred in the past (Dt 2:12). Thus scholars developed an alternative explanation for the origin of the Pentateuch known as the Documentary Hypothesis. According to the classical form of the theory, the Pentateuch is the product of a long and complex literary evolution, specifically incorporating at least four major literary strands composed independently over several centuries and not combined in the present form until the time of Ezra (fifth century b.c.). These sources are identified as J, E, D, and P. J represents a ninth century b.c. (c. 850) document that originated in Judah, distinguished by its preference for the name Yahweh (Jehovah, hence the “J”). The E source preferred the divine title Elohim, and theoretically was composed in Israel in the eighth century b.c. The D stands for Deuteronomy, supposedly written around 621 b.c. to lend support to Josiah’s reforms. The priestly document, P, supposedly was composed c. 500 b.c. by priests seeking to preserve their own version of Israel’s history. According to the theory, these sources were compiled and combined in the middle of the fifth century b.c. Nehemiah 8 recounts the moment when Ezra publicly read the Pentateuch as a unit for the first time. Because Joshua describes the fulfillment of the promises of land to the patriarchs and because of stylistic links to Deuteronomy, Gerhard von Rad added Joshua to the pentateuchal corpus, calling the six books the Hexateuch.

Variations of the Documentary Hypothesis prevailed for more than a century. However, due to advances in literary studies, today the state of pentateuchal scholarship is confused, with new theories or radical modifications appearing often. The new theories push the dates for pentateuchal origin ever later. R. N. Whybray argued that the Pentateuch is a unitary composition written in the fourth century b.c., inspired perhaps by the Greek Histories of Herodotus.

The internal evidence suggests that Moses kept a record of Israel’s experiences in the desert (Ex 17:14; 24:4, 7; 34:27; Nm 33:1, 2; Dt 31:9, 11). Furthermore, many statements in the OT credit the Pentateuch to Moses (e.g., Jos 1:8; 8:31, 32; 1 Kg 2:3; 2 Kg 14:6; Ezr 6:18; Neh 13:1; Dn 9:11–13; Mal 4:4), and the NT identifies the Torah very closely with him (Mt 19:8; Jn 5:46, 47; 7:19; Acts 3:22; Rm 10:5). A series of additional features within the text point to an early date for its composition: (1) the forms of the names and many of the actions of the patriarchs make best sense in a second millennium b.c. environment; (2) the narratives suggest a thorough acquaintance with Egypt; (3) Egyptian loanwords appear with greater frequency in the Pentateuch than anywhere else in the OT; (4) the name Moses itself suggests an Egyptian setting for the story; (5) the general viewpoint of the narrative is foreign to Canaan; (6) the seasons are Egyptian; the flora and fauna are Egyptian and Sinaitic; (7) in some instances the geography reflects a foreign viewpoint (e.g., a comment like that found in Genesis 33:18, “the Canaanite city of Shechem,” is unlikely after the exile because by then Israel had been in the land for 900 years); (8) and archaisms in the language (like the use of the third person singular pronoun, hi, for both genders).

DEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP Agabus Cover BIBLICAL CRITICISM

It is doubtful he wrote the account of his death in Deuteronomy 34. Frequently the text provides explanatory notes updating facts for a later audience, such as, “Esau (that is Edom),” in Genesis 36:1; the aboriginal inhabitants of the Transjordan, Deuteronomy 2:10–12. Furthermore, the form of the cursive Canaanite script that Moses probably used was still in its infancy and was replaced with the square Aramaic script in the postexilic period, and the vowels were added a millennium later. The archaic qualities of the poems (such as Gn 49; Ex 15) in contrast to the surrounding narrative suggests the latter may have been updated periodically in accordance with the evolution of the Hebrew language. This may explain why the grammar and syntax of Deuteronomy in its present form reads much like Jeremiah, who lived long after Moses. At the same time, Moses could have used a scribe or secretary.

APOSTOLIC FATHERS Lightfoot

There is no reason to doubt that Moses wrote down the speeches he delivered (Dt 31:9–13), or that when he came down from Mount Sinai, he arranged for the transcription of the revelation he had received on the mountain, if he did not write it all himself. Just as the pieces of the tabernacle were constructed and woven by skilled craftsmen and finally assembled by Moses (Ex 35–40), so literary craftsmen may have composed some bits and pieces of the Pentateuch and submitted them to Moses, who then approved them. When exactly the pieces were put together in their present form we may only speculate (Dt suggests some time after the death of Moses), but it seems likely that by the time David organized the temple worship, the contents of the Torah were fixed.

5:10 The sin offering preceded the burnt offering because one was obliged to be in good standing before God before he could worship Him. Coming immediately after the sin offering, which atoned for sin, the burnt offering symbolized the restoration of the offender and represented his first act of worship after forgiveness.

REASONABLE FAITH FEARLESS-1

5:15–16 The term “offends” (Hb maʿal) refers to a betrayal of trust, whether in regard to marital infidelity, deception, or to the violation of the covenant between God and Israel by the worship of foreign gods. In legal texts, the crime of maʿal involves actual loss of property to other persons. The story about Achan, preserved in Jos 7, is classified as maʿal (see 2 Ch 26:16–18; 28:19–25; 29:19; 36:14; Neh 1:8; Ezk 17:19–20; Dn 9:7).

The “restitution offering” was a specialized kind of sin offering (cp. v. 7) required in cases when someone had been denied his rightful due. The value of the amount of which he had been defrauded had to be restored to him, plus a fine of 20 percent (5:16; 6:5). The “restitution offering” was commanded whenever another party had suffered some deprivation (14:12–18).

6:4–5 Sin is treated as a debt and places the offender under debt (see Mt 18:21–35; Lk 7:41–42). In Is 53, the Servant of the Lord offered Himself as a restitution offering. That passage looks ahead to the death of Christ, Who made full and perfect compensation for the sins of the world.

The Documentary Hypothesis—Defending Moses’ Authorship of the Pentateuch

6:10–11 The priestly vestments were to be worn only in the confines of the sanctuary (Ex 28:43). In some ancient Near Eastern religions the priest performed certain rituals in the nude, but in Israel this was considered an affront to the Lord (see note on Ex 20:26).

6:12 The sacrifices offered up at the inauguration of the priesthood were consumed miraculously by a divine fire (9:24). This fire was not to be extinguished to ensure that God might accept all subsequent sacrifices.

6:22–23 Every grain offering brought by a priest on his own behalf, whether for expiation or as a voluntary offering, was to be burned entirely on the altar. Priests could benefit only for services undertaken on behalf of other Israelites.

7:31 The sons of Eli, the priest of Shiloh, failed to observe this law (1 Sm 2:15–17).

7:34 The presentation offering (tenuphah) and the contribution offering (terumah) were usually distinguished as two movements performed with an offering, the tenuphah being a horizontal motion “extending and bringing back,” and the terumah being a vertical motion “raising and lowering.” Recent research, based on an Egyptian relief from Karnak, indicates that the so-called “wave offering” (tenuphah) should now be understood as an elevation offering, a ritual of elevating and lifting the offering in dedication to God. The “contribution” offering (terumah) is to be understood as a gift.

8:1 Nearly every verse in chapter 8 is an adaptation of commands given in Ex 29. The family of Aaron needed to maintain a level of purity and ceremonial cleanness beyond that of their fellow worshipers, although Israel as a whole was to be “My kingdom of priests and My holy nation” (Ex 19:6; cp. 1 Pt 2:9).

8:7 In Ex 3:5 and Jos 5:15, Moses and Joshua removed their sandals when standing on sacred ground. Islamic practice still requires removal of one’s shoes upon entering a mosque or shrine. Aaron’s tunic and sash were woven of fine linen and embroidered with blue, purple, and scarlet woolen threads (Ex 28:39). These components correspond to the fabric of the tabernacle’s lower curtains (Ex 26:36; 27:16).

Form Criticism and Tradition Criticism

8:8 The Urim and Thummim are mentioned in Scripture in only six other places (Ex 28:30; Nm 27:21; Dt 33:8; 1 Sm 28:6; Ezr 2:63; Neh 7:65). They may have been flat stones, similar to the puru used in Mesopotamia, and attested in Hebrew as purim (“lots”) in Esther (Est 9:24–26). Archaeological excavations have recovered such objects from non-Israelite sanctuary sites. The Urim and Thummim may have functioned like dice in determining God’s will. Rabbinic tradition dates the cessation of their use to the time of David and Solomon.

8:10 Scripture often connects the act of anointing with the receiving of God’s Spirit (1 Sm 10:1–10; 16:13; Is 61:1).

8:24 These actions are analogous to what occurred at the enactment of the Sinaitic covenant (Ex 24:6–8).

Young Christians

9:2 The sin offering provides the foundation for all the other offerings, in that it offers both propitiation and expiation from all sin by the shedding of the blood of a substitute.

9:24 God appeared as fire in passages such as Ex 24:17 and Dt 4:12; 9:3. On four other occasions God sent fire to consume a burnt offering: (Jdg 13:15–20; 1 Kg 18:22–39; 1 Ch 21:26; 2 Ch 7:1–3).

10:1 Nadab and Abihu apparently took their fire from somewhere outside the altar area and placed it in their censers.

11:1–23 The main purpose of dietary laws was to separate Israel from the other nations. These laws had practical benefits. See the article “How Can Modern Medicine Relate to the Old Testament?” p. 233. In all four sources where the prohibited foods are enumerated (vv. 44–45; 20:25–26; Dt 14:21) the reason for such restrictions is the holiness of the Lord and His people. The handful of species fit for God’s altar table was definitive for cleanness throughout the rest of the animal world. Interpreting this theologically, one might say that since God had limited His “diet” to these animals, His people must do so in imitation of their creator (Lv 11:44–45). Applying this standard, only those animals that specifically resembled the sacrificial model were allowed. These have in common cloven hoofs and rumination (chewing the cud). However, Israel alone is required to observe such special ceremonial cleanness, because they are the holy people; Dt 14:21 explicitly allows Israelites to sell carcasses to aliens and foreigners.

The Flaws of the Historical-Critical Method of Biblical Interpretation

Looking at the larger arrangement of the chapter, note that it contains regulations concerning four major groups of animals: land animals, birds or flying creatures, water animals, and “small creeping things.” This is the same general classification of animal life found in the Gn account of creation. In the text of the Torah, a generic distinction between pure and impure animals first occurs in the narrative of the flood (Gn 7:2). There is no evidence of a broad nutritional or health-related basis for the dietary classifications of the Torah. The greatest obstacle to the health being the primary reason for these laws is that the NT removes distinctions between clean and unclean foods; Jesus directed his hearers to a more fundamental distinction (Mk 7:14–23). Romans and Egyptians, also, did not eat fish without scales.

11:13–17 Carrion-eating birds of prey would be defiled by the dead carcasses of their victims as well as by the blood still present in the flesh.

Jesus Paul THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK

11:47 The separation of the animal kingdom into the pure and the impure illustrates Israel’s separation from the nations. The latter had defiled themselves by their idolatry and immorality. Israel must refrain from partaking in these practices to live a holy life founded on the way and nature of God. In the NT these laws were set aside as barriers between Jew and non-Jew.

The Seriously Flawed Feminist Criticism of the Bible Harmonizes So Well with Today’s Secular Way of Thinking

12:1–5 Some have suggested that the longer waiting period of uncleanness upon the birth of a daughter reflects an Israelite view of the inferiority of women. Alternatively, the longer period of impurity after the birth of a daughter may reflect apprehension and anticipation about the infant daughter’s ability to eventually become a mother in her own right. Ancient Near Eastern polytheism, related to the cycles of nature, placed great emphasis on fertility; the Israelite regulations governing a new mother may represent a reaction to this emphasis. It was the discharge of blood following birth that rendered a new mother unclean for one or two weeks, similar to the time of uncleanness for a woman during her menstrual period.

12:3 Other ancient cultures practiced circumcision (Jr 9:25). With the transfer of circumcision to infancy, it became a sign of the covenant, a rite of initiation into the religious bond between Israel and its God (Gn 17:1–27).

12:4–5 A longer period of defilement should not be construed as an indication of inferior social worth. For example, a human corpse defiles more than a dead pig. The sacrifices a mother was to offer were the same for either a girl or a boy, indicating that both genders were considered equal before God.

12:8 Mary the mother of Jesus followed this regulation after His birth. She offered up two birds, the offering of the poor, for her purification (Lk 2:22–24).

REASONING WITH OTHER RELIGIONS APOLOGETICS

13:1–46 Typically, during the OT period, disease was regarded as a punishment from God for some wrong-doing. In the case of “skin disease” (tsaraʿat) specifically, there was a tradition that it represented a punishment from God for acts of malice, illustrated for example by what happened to Miriam when she criticized Moses (Nm 12:1–10). The term does not refer to a single type of skin disease, but is a broad descriptive term covering all kinds of disfiguring diseases of the skin or scalp. Older English versions translated it as “leprosy.”

Defending the Book of Jeremiah As Authentic and True

13:45 Tearing the clothes, messing the hair, and covering the moustache are signs of mourning for the dead (Ezk 24:17, 22).

13:46 “Outside the camp” was the farthest place from God to which the sinner and the impure were banished (10:4–5; Nm 5:1–4; 12:14–15; 31:19–24). It was also the place where wrongdoers were executed (Nm 15:35–36). To live outside the camp was to be cut off from the blessings of the covenant. It is understandable that a person diagnosed as unclean would go into mourning (Lv 13:45).

13:48 The phrase “warp or woof” occurs only in this chapter in the Bible (vv. 48, 49, 51, 53, 56, 57, 58) and refers to the lengthwise and cross threads in a woven garment.

14:11 The phrase “the priest who performs the cleansing” probably indicates a specialization of priestly functions. Certain priests were specifically trained for such purifications and were routinely assigned to administer them (cp. Mk 1:44). Priests in Egypt and Mesopotamia followed a similar practice.

Critical Objections to the Genuineness of the Bible Book of Ezekiel

14:12–18 The restitution offering was offered to compensate God for loss. The person with “skin disease” fell into this category because the Lord was deprived of his sacrifices, tithes, and firstfruits as long as uncleanness kept the infected person outside the worshiping community.

14:33–53 The procedures for purifying the house that has “mildew contamination” are identical to those presscribed in verses 1–32 for purifying a diseased person.

14:57 In Scripture, disease is one of the images of sin (Ps 147:3; Is 1:5–6; Jr 8:2; 30:12; Mk 2:17). The OT records several instances of people who developed serious skin disease following sacrilegious behavior (e.g., Nm 12:9–10; 2 Kg 5:27; 2 Ch 26:17–21). The Levitical law provided no means of curing such conditions. The sufferer had to wait in hope of a cure from God, without human aid. Only then could he present himself to the priest. The banishment of the diseased person from human society and God’s sanctuary was analogous to the fall when Adam and Eve were expelled from Eden (Gn 3).

15:1–33 All the impurities dealt with in this chapter threatened the purity of the sanctuary (v. 31). They are discharges resulting from illness or infection, in addition to menstruation and seminal emissions. While these regulations may have involved personal hygiene, their main concern is the holiness of the worshiper.

15:18 The rites of other ancient Near Eastern religions celebrated the fertility of the gods, even to the point of dramatizing it through human sexual intercourse. Israel’s faith, in contrast, prohibited sexual intercourse within sacred precincts. The uncleanness resulting from normal sexual relations is of the mildest type. Emission of semen, in intercourse (v. 18) or at other times (vv. 16–17), causes pollution, but no sacrifice was required to purify a person from it. The man (and his wife when she was involved) had simply to wash and wait until evening (vv. 16, 18). Though the couple might be ritually unclean, it was not a question of their having sinned. (See the article, “Is the Bible Sexually Oppressive?” p. 987.)

15:19 A woman’s time of uncleanness was longer, since her menstrual discharge would last longer than an emission of semen. Egyptians, Persians, and Arabs also subscribed to the view that menstruation entailed ritual uncleanness.

15:32–33 Good sexual hygiene may increase the fertility of both males and females. The primary purpose of these laws, however, was to make Israel holy and to prevent intermarriage with groups who were not worshipers of Yahweh. In Heb 13:4 the laws of ritual purity are cited metaphorically and applied to personal integrity within marriage. In the NT, Mk 5:25–34 reveals Jesus’ general attitude concerning the uncleanness regulations; his focus was on faith for healing the condition, rather than upon the ritual pollution of the afflicted person. Jesus pointed beyond the letter of the OT regulations to the moral principles that informed them, within God’s greater purpose of revealing His kingdom.

16:2 The mercy seat, 44 by 26 inches, was the cover on the top of the ark of the covenant and was connected with the cherubim.

Twisted Scripture

Leviticus 16:4–10

The Seventh-Day Adventist Church views this passage as pointing to Satan as the end-time scapegoat who takes away the sins of God’s people. This will occur during the millennium when Satan is sentenced to roam the desolate earth while the saints are in heaven. This doctrine makes Christ and Satan co-redeemers. While Christ pays for the believer’s sins, Satan is the sin bearer who is punished for them. The Scriptures clearly teach that Jesus alone both makes atonement for sin and removes the sin as far as the east is from the west (Ps 103:12).

BIBLICAL INTERPRETATION: There are Weaknesses with Redaction Criticism But Are There Any Strengths?

16:8 The meaning of Azazel has been explained three ways: (1) It is a proper name for the goat itself, meaning “the goat that departs,” i.e., its traditional meaning of “scapegoat.” (2) It was the particular desolate and rugged area into which the goat was released. (3) It refers to the leader of the evil spirits of the wilderness, possibly to be identified with “demons” (Dt 32:17; Ps 106:37) and “satyrs” (2 Ch 11:15). The NT does not explicitly state that the scapegoat was a type of Christ. Early in church history, however, as attested in the Epistle of Barnabas, written c. a.d. 200, Christians saw in the scapegoat a type of Christ. As the scapegoat was led out to die in the wilderness bearing the sins of the people, so Christ was crucified outside Jerusalem for the sins of His people.

16:21 The imposition of hands on the head of an animal is clearly explained as the symbolical transference of the people’s sins to the animal victims.

16:22 A tradition in Jewish literature (Mishnah Yoma 6:6) attests to the fact that the goat was led to a steep cliff and pushed over backward to kill it.

16:29 In biblical literature the idiom “practice self-denial” connotes fasting (Ps 35:13; Is 58:3, 10). Subsequent Jewish literature elaborated on the practice. Mishnah Yoma 8:1 interprets self-denial as involving five abstentions: from food and drink, bathing, use of oil on the body, wearing leather shoes, and sexual intercourse. In Judaism the Day of Atonement continues to be the most important and solemn day of the year. Since, with no temple, it is not possible to offer sacrifice, Jews observe it by fasting, abstinence, and prayers of penance as they seek God for forgiveness. Most NT references to the Day of Atonement focus on the access now available into the most holy place. When Christ died, the curtain in the temple was torn in two (Mt 27:51). Christ as our High Priest “entered the holy of holies once for all … by His own blood” (Heb 9:12).

17:1 Here begins a section of Leviticus that many scholars refer to as the Holiness Code, continuing through chapter 26. It is especially concerned with the holiness of the Lord’s people, as a reflection of His holiness.

17:4 This ordinance was to prevent sacrifices to the goat-demons who inhabited the wilderness. To offer sacrifices to demons was a flagrant breach of the first commandment to “not have other gods besides Me” (Ex 20:3; Dt 5:7). This law could be effective only when everyone lived near the sanctuary in the wilderness period.

Twisted Scripture

Leviticus 17:10–14

Using this passage about eating blood, the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society (Jehovah’s Witnesses) forbids members from receiving blood through the mouth or veins. Hence, they allow no blood transfusions, even in life-or-death situations.

Who Wrote the Gospels Found in the New Testament of Our Bibles and How Do We Know?

17:11 Blood is considered efficacious because it represents life. Creatures cannot live without it, and killing is expressed as shedding blood (Gn 9:4). The blood of the sacrificial victim offered on the altar is its “life” and can stand in place of human life. Blood essentially signifies the life given up in death.

18:1–20:27 The sexual aberrations listed in these chapters refer to irregularities known in pagan religions.

18:3 Homosexuality and bestiality were apparently common in Canaanite culture. Homosexuality (v. 22) is mentioned with reference to the Canaanites (Gn 19:5–11; Jdg 19) and also attested in Mesopotamia. Bestiality (v. 23) is also known from Egyptian, Canaanite, and Hittite sources. In the Egyptian royal family brothers married sisters. In the laws of Hammurabi and in the Hittite law codes some of the incestuous relationships listed in 18:6–18 are prohibited.

18:4 Since marriages within the extended clan were encouraged there was a tendency toward endogamy—that is, marrying within one’s own group. Marriages of this kind were essential to ensure that ancestral lands would be retained within the clan. These incest laws are meant to prevent excessive inbreeding within families that were otherwise bound together as socioeconomic units.

THE BOOK OF DANIEL DEFENDED: Attacks From False Friends “Christian” Bible Scholars and the Enemy Bible Critics

18:8 This was the sin of Reuben (Gn 35:22; 49:4).

18:9 What was acceptable during the Patriarchal period (Gn 20:12) is now forbidden. This change in what is permitted proves the antiquity of the patriarchal traditions.

18:21 The Molech cult involved the sacrifice of children (see 20:2–5; Dt 12:31; 18:10; 2 Kg 23:10; Jr 32:35). Remnants of Molech sacrifices have been found in North Africa, and there is evidence to suggest that these rites originated in Phoenicia. The book of Jubilees (part of the OT apocryphal literature) connects intermarriage, specifically the marrying of one’s children to pagans, with the sin of Molech.

18:22 Many scholars maintain that pagan priests regularly engaged in homosexual acts (see Dt 23:18; 1 Kg 14:24). While lesbianism is not explicitly forbidden in the OT, the Jewish rabbis agreed that the same laws applied to women (Rm 1:27).

Why Has the Book of Daniel Been On Trial and How Can We Defend It?

18:23 Hittite laws assign the death penalty to lying with some animals, but lying with a horse or a mule carried no penalty. In Israel, all bestiality was a capital offense.

18:24–25 God was evicting the Canaanites from the land because of their evil practices (18:24; 20:24). If the Israelites followed the Canaanites’ customs and practices (which they later did), the same thing would happen to them. The incident of Baal of Peor (Nm 25:1–3) illustrates the relationship between sexual immorality and idolatry.

19:1–37 In this chapter we find the most concentrated occurrence of the phrase, “I am the Lord your God” in the Bible. This passage quotes, or alludes to, all the Ten Commandments; sometimes they are expounded or developed in a new way.

Twisted Scripture

Leviticus 19:3

Both God and Jesus (Mt 12:8) are called the Lord of the Sabbath, showing their equality. This verse is troublesome for those rejecting the deity of Jesus.

The Synoptic Gospels In Early Christianity: Why Is the Preferred Choice the Testimony to the Priority of the Gospel of Matthew?

19:9 “Gleanings” refers to that which falls to the ground during reaping. It was the practice in ancient Israel to cut the stalks of grain with one hand while catching what was reaped with the other. Whatever the reaper failed to catch in his other hand fell to the ground and was known as “gleanings” (see Ru 2:3, 7).

19:11–18 Concern for the poor, the widow, and the orphan is widespread throughout the ancient Near East and in the OT (Ex 22:21–22; 23:9; Lv 19:33–34; Dt 15:7–11; 24:14, 17; 27:19; Jr 7:6; 22:3; Zec 7:10). Israelite law is unique however, in mandating kind treatment for the alien or stranger. But the motivation for such benevolence is not derived from its social value; it is based on the need to reflect the Lord’s holiness.

19:13 The term “neighbor” (Hb reaʿ) can also refer to a non-Israelite (cp. Gn 38:12, 20 friend; Ex 11:2); that extended meaning is intended here.

By Daniel I. Block

The Apologetics Study Bible: Real Questions, Straight Answers, Stronger Faith, ed. Ted Cabal et al. (Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers, 2007), 158–180.

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